REFLEXOTHERAPY (Latin reflexus turned back, reflected + by Greek therapeia treatment) — the medical system based on the reflex ratios created in process filo-and ontogenesis, realized through the central nervous system by means of irritation of the receptor device of skin, mucous membranes and subjects of fabrics for impact on functional systems of an organism.
The concept «reflexotherapy» appeared in France in 1912 — 1913. The term is offered by H. Jaworski who combined under this name various to lay down. receptions, to-rykh is the cornerstone reflex (see). The term «reflexotherapy» is widely used now, but not completely reflects a being of a number of the diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive methods included in it.
In our country under the term «reflexotherapy» all methods of reflex influence (irrespective of a way) on the active sites of a body surface (point) rich with nervous elements combine.
Among doctors of different specialties interest in the methods P. providing achievement of favorable results at treatment of considerable number of diseases and syndromes without use of pharmaceuticals or with reduction of their dosage steadily increases. Lack of by-effects at the qualified use of methods P. promotes their wide recognition.
Reflex reactions of a nervous system — local, segmented and nadsegmentarny are the cornerstone of the mechanism of action of R. Excitement on afferent conduction paths of a nervous system and on associative fibers is transferred to various segments of a spinal cord, to trunk reticular structures (a reticular formation, a thalamus, a hypothalamus), bark of big cerebral hemispheres. Bark of big hemispheres as the main analyzing and regulatory center of an organism creates response to reflex influences.
Disturbance of regulatory functions of a nervous system causes a mismatch in functional systems. Each link of rassoglasovanny system, according to G. N. Krimanovsky (1980), can be a releaser of creation of new pathological functional system and changes as in the ratio, and in levels of functioning of a dominant, determinant and anti-systems. The «Prestarting integration» developing under the influence of motivation and a situation before influence of an incentive as it is shown to P. K. Anokhin (1971), provides formation of the dominating, predominating center of excitement (see. Dominant ). This center is dominant, capable, according to A. A. Ukhtomsky (1927), to sum up excitement while diffusion waves from irritations of different modalities excite all centers, to-rye are rather excitable at present. Artificially created dominant it is long remains and leads to fading patol. the excitement connected with a disease.
Implementation of reflexotherapeutic effect is reached by polymodal convergence of somatic and visceral signals on neurons of different levels of a nervous system (a spinal cord, a myelencephalon, a thalamus, bark of big cerebral hemispheres). By neurophysiological researches it is shown that at convergence of polymodal signals somatic impulses prevail over visceral. A flow of an impulsation from musculocutaneous nerves (from skin) if it precedes a visceral impulsation (from internals). extinguishes the last therefore bioelectric reaction in c. the N of page at the same time does not arise, though change of the general excitability of nerve centers is noted. The same relationship is possible also in a somatic nervous system between an impulsation on quickly carrying out myelin fibers transmitting «instant» pain and on slowly carrying out amyelinic nerve fibrils transmitting the stupid, aching pain; at the same time to them - the pulsation on quickly carrying out fibers blocks an entrance on neurons of a spinal cord, and reaction from the subsequent incentives on slowly carrying out fibers «is extinguished».
Discovery of endogenous opiates (see. Opiates endogenous ) and opiate receptors of neurons promoted clarification of a role of neurohumoral factors in the mechanism of action of reflexotherapy. It turned out that administration of enkephalins and morphine to the area of a marginal zone and the gelatinous substance of a spinal cord containing neurons with the opiate receptors which are becoming more active from quickly carrying out fibers brakes T-cells of the back horns which are excited medlennoprovodyashchy painful fibers.
An important role in implementation of the integrated reflexotherapeutic influences, it agrees sovr. to data, belongs a periakveduktal-noma to gray matter, kernels of a seam, dorsomedial kernels of a hypothalamus, a parafascicular complex of a thalamus, bark of big cerebral hemispheres.
Depending on the place of influence modern methods P. can be divided into the following groups: korporalny and auricular, skalpovy (cranial), nasal (Bonnye's tsentroterapiya), front, vertebral (spondylotherapy), bottom and manual (pedo-and manoterapiya). Methods P. it is accepted also depending on used to lay down. a factor to divide on mechanical, thermal, pharmacological, light, electric, magnetic and biological. From methods P., except the most widespread (see. Acupuncture ), the microacupuncture, vacuum therapy, applications of balls and plates, a method of manual influence, microwave and magnetic methods, cryotherapy, laser therapy, handling reflexotherapy develop.
The microacupuncture — a method of the prolonged impact on certain zones of skin special microneedles for the purpose of treatment painful, allergic, hyperkinetic and many others patol was widely adopted. states, and also prevention of exacerbations of often recurrent diseases (radiculitises, neuralgia, bronchial asthma, etc.). Microneedles have the handle in the form of 1,5 — 2 spiral turns, the cut passes a core 10 — 14 long through the center llg; its working end is ground in the form of a cone for introduction to fabrics. After introduction of microneedles to skin they are fixed an adhesive plaster and left on a long term (from several hours to 21 days). At the same time microneedles have mechanical effect on fabrics, and also cause formation of the center of a chronic aseptic inflammation, to-ry creates additional irritation of the receptor device and on this basis formation of artificially created generator patholologically of the strengthened excitement. The dominant is created, the mode of functioning of the determinant centers in c changes. N of page.
A method of vacuum therapy (see. Barotherapy ) — to lay down. a method of reflex impact on a human body the local reduced (rarefied) pressure of free air. For performing vacuum therapy use special banks (see) therefore it is also called «can therapy». The essence of a method consists in creation of artificial «vacuum» and impact with its help on certain body parts. As a result of such local influence receptors of skin (baroreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors) and the subject fabrics are exposed to irritation, the temporary dermahemia in the form of arterial inflow or venous stagnation develops, the vascular tone changes, there are vegetovascular reactions, the lymphokinesis amplifies, coagulability of blood increases, the trophicity of fabrics improves, the hemogenesis and adaptation reactions of an organism is stimulated. Distinguish the traditional static method of vacuum therapy consisting directed by several cans on area of influence, and vacuum can massage. The last is carried out after processing of skin by a liquid paraffin, on skin put to bank and moved within 5 — 20 min. Criteria of sufficiency of influence are development of a resistant hyperemia, pastosity of skin, relaxation of muscles, an analgesia. Indications: pain radicular syndrome, mialgiya, miositis, hyperkinesias, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc.
The method of application of balls and plates belongs to the category of prolonged. Metal balls from stainless steel or alloy of silver, gold and other metals to dia. 1 mm, in number from 2 to 7, pasted on a thin adhesive plaster of 1 X 1 cm in size, fix to skin for a period of 1 up to 7 days. This method is often applied at arthritises, mialgiya, radiculitis, hyperkinesias, bronchial asthma and other diseases. Plates — the thin, well polished disks, 1 — 1,5 mm thick, to dia. from 2 — 3 to 15 mm made of red copper, stainless steel, silver, gold and other metals, and also of ebonite. Plates impose on zones of a hyperalgesia, fix an adhesive plaster and leave for 3 — 5 days. Then they are removed and if necessary in 2 — 3 days make repeated application. To the weakened patients and children of application of plates apply for shorter term. Influence without serious consequences since the integrity of an integument is not broken therefore plates can be applied and when the methods P. irritating or injuring skin are contraindicated (over vessels, in painful points, etc.) * Use also balls and plates with the irritating or other active agents which are raised dust on their surface, the magnetized balls and plates.
The method of manual influence includes a dot pressura, acupressure, linear massage. The dot pressura is carried out by the end of one finger or nail, II is more often run and by the III finger. Acupressure is carried out the palmar surface of nail phalanxes by I, II or III fingers; at the same time use the main methods of classical massage: stroking, grinding, puddling, vibration (see. Massage ). It is possible to use also special metal, wooden, stone, ebonite or plastic core with the rounded-off or spherical end. Mechanical irritations make in points of acupuncture or on limited sites (zones) of a body surface of the person. The number of the massed points can be from 1 to 9, the massed zone covers 1 — 2 and more segments or passes on the course of a peripheral nerve (nerves). Duration of the procedure depends on a medical task. The method is widely applied at pains, allergic diseases, sleeplessness, to interruption of attacks of bronchial asthma, etc.
The microwave method consists in influence by superhigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation (see. Microwave therapy ), the flow to-rogo is focused on the corresponding zone. The dose of influence is selected individually depending on feelings of the patient, expressiveness of a pain syndrome.
The method of cryotherapy consists in influence by cold — ice or quickly evaporating substances (Aether chloratus, ether, chloroform, efiromaslyany substances). Now in R. probes of various designs find broad application for this purpose (see. Cryosurgery ), allowing to use liquid nitrogen that provides the prolonged reflexotherapeutic influence at the expense of arising at the same time and remaining on skin within several hours or days (depending on exposure time) thermal microtraumas.
Laser therapy — impact on points monochromatic ultraviolet or infrared radiation. Using different devices to laser therapy (see. Laser ), it is possible to influence both continuous, and pulse radiation, with a frequency of impulses from 0,2 to 5000 Hz. Laser therapy promotes improvement of exchange processes and acceleration of regeneration processes in fabrics, has antiinflammatory and vasodilating effect, allows to normalize the bioelectric status of an organism.
Handling R. (a vertebroterapiya, «manual medicine») — a method of hl. obr. manual to lay down. the receptions directed to correction or elimination patol. the manifestations caused by diseases or age changes of a backbone, joints, the muscular and copular device. This method is used preferential for treatment of functional vertebrogenny diseases and diseases of joints.
See also Segmentary-reflex therapy .
Bibliography: Anokhin P. K. Sketches on physiology of functional systems, M., 1975; Oh the Tax Code about V. S. and To about-teneva V. M. Practical guidance on reflexotherapy, M., 1982; Durinyan R. A. Atlas of auricular reflexotherapy, Tashkent, 1982; To about t e-Neva V. M. Factors and methods of reflexotherapy, M., 1981; Lakustav.N. and to Gross G. S. Short fundamentals of reflexotherapy, Chisinau, 1980; M and - h e r e E. L. t and With and m about with yu to And. 3. Guide to reflexotherapy, Kiev, 1982; Portnov F. G. Elektropunk-turnaya reflexotherapy, Riga, 1980; Tabeeva D. M. Guide to acupuncture, M., 1980, bibliogr.; T y to about the h and N with to and I am E. D. Bases of acupuncture, L., 1979, bibliogr.; Usova M. K. and M about r oh about in S. A. The quick reference guide on acupuncture and cauterization, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Abrams A. Spondylotherapy, San Francisco, 1910; Leprince A. Traite de reflexotherapie, P., 1931; L e-w i t K. Manuelle Medizin im Rahmen der medizinischen Rehabilitation, Lpz., 1977, Bibliogr.; Rychlikow£ E. &Ver-tebrokardilni syndrom, Praha, 1975, bibliogr.; it, Funkcni poruchy kloubli koncetin, Praha, 1980, bibliogr.
V. S. Goydenko.