From Big Medical Encyclopedia

REEDUKATION OF HEARING (Latin re-the prefix meaning repetition, resuming + educatio education) — a way of improvement of hearing at patients with relative deafness, a surdomutism and in some cases with deafness by acoustical exercises.

In 1805 Itar (J. The m of G. Itard) offered systematic acoustical exercises for deaf-mutes. In 1888 P. P. Christmas carried out by means of special devices acoustical exercises with pupils of school for deaf-mutes. Further to its use N. V were engaged in development of a technique of R. of page, indications and contraindications. White-headed, B. S. Preobrazhensky, L. W. Neumann, M. A. Ratenberg, F. A. Rau, etc.

R. of page. it is shown at sharp relative deafness (see) and to deafness (see) at adults and children in the presence at them the remains of hearing, and also at nek-ry stages otosclerosis (see), neurosensory relative deafness (see. Preddvernoulitkovy nerve ), average and heavy degrees of hysterical deafness.

Contraindications to R.'s carrying out of page are an aggravation hron. purulent meso - and an attic disease with plentiful suppuration, acute diseases of an acoustic organ (see. Otitis ), acute disorders of vestibular function after recently postponed meningitis, a stroke, encephalitis (see. Labyrinthitis ), and also pain during exercises with the sound-amplifying equipment.

Development of hearing at to a surdomutism (see) is one of the most important tasks of schools for hard of hearing and deaf-and-dumb. The river of page at pupils of these schools is aimed at the development of ability of perception of elements of the speech, use of the remains of hearing for working on by a pronunciation.

The careful research shall precede R.'s carrying out of page hearing (see) by means of the audiometer (see. Audiometriya ) and informal conversation.

Rubles of page apply in the form of special occupations in an acoustical office of special schools, out-of-class actions — listening of broadcasts and tape recordings, games with use of hearing, participation in orchestra, and also in the form of group or individual occupations in suras to a logopedic office. For group occupations select the children having approximately identical hearing. Classes are given by 2 — 3 times a week; duration of group occupations is 45 min., individual — 15 min.

Use also sound-amplifying equipment to acoustical exercises — acoustical exercise machines (see. Surdoterapevtichesky equipment ), the part of classes is given without it. Because the loudness of the given sounds sometimes is close to a pain threshold, giving classes shall regulate their strengthening. Occupations include exercises for definition of intensity of a voice, duration of sounding and the direction of a source of a sound. Sounds and the speech are perceived via earphones, and the patient can regulate intensity of a sound. The dosage of acoustical exercises is made before receiving by the patient feeling of a clear sound. Duration of giving of tones shall not exceed 2 min., speeches — 10 min. R.'s sessions of page carry out daily, a course of treatment of 1 — 2 month.

According to L. W. Neumann, the optimum level of strengthening of the speech shall be on 12 — 15 dB, and the most tolerance level of strengthening is 5 dB lower than the level of intensity of the sound causing unpleasant feelings. At the same time it is recommended to use the sound-amplifying equipment within 20 — 25 min. to training of deaf-and-dumb school students. R. which is carried out according to the corresponding indications and correctly carried out by page to some extent is effective for development of hearing and the speech in hard of hearing and deaf-and-dumb children though at permanent processes it is impossible to return the lost hearing with its help. It is noted that as a result of exercises the sharpening of hearing is expressed more clearly concerning the speech, than concerning tones. Ya. S. Temkin specifies that the page at patients with postcontusional deafness in the early period after a contusion leads use of loud sounds for R. to bystry improvement and recovery of hearing, and explains it with psychotherapeutic effect. He also considers that considerable improvement of perception of tones after R. the page does not come, however the training of hearing to informal conversation is important.

The accounting of results of use of R. of page is made by definition of a threshold of hearing before and after occupations, by measurements of differential thresholds of height of a sound during the occupations and a research of dynamics of hearing at relative deafness within academic year.

Bibliography: Pole G. S. and Marusya-in and A. M. Audiological bases of rehabilitation of children with neurosensory relative deafness, L., 1979; Neumann L. W. Acoustical function at hard of hearing and deaf-and-dumb children, page 250, M., 1961; Rau F. F. Oral speech of deafs, page 301, M., 1973; it, Psychological questions of use of residual hearing for formation of a pronunciation at deaf children, Defectology, No. 1, page 3, 1976; With and - in and the p L. Modern aspects of rehabilitation of deafs, Special school, century 3, page 8, 1968; Temkin Ya. S. Deafness and relative deafness, page 144, M., 1957; Courtoy M. L’ 6ducation audiophonologique, рёс^о-gique et professionelle de l’enfant d6ficient auditif, p. 158, Bruxelles, 1972; N o-uyk A. j. L a b about v y M. Prispevek to rehabilitaci nedonoslychav^ch, cs. Oto-laryng., sv. 21, s. 16, 1972.

A. X. Minkovsky.