RECREATION (Latin recreatio recovery, rest) — activity of the person in off-duty time for the purpose of recovery and strengthening of physical and spiritual powers, and also for all-round development of the personality, carried out generally with use of natural factors in the territories which are specially intended for this purpose being out of the permanent address.
River the collective concept covering a wide range of the problems connected with sanatorium treatment (only in the part relating to use of natural resources), all types of recreational rest, tourism, excursions and assuming comprehensive, systems approach to their studying, the organization and advance planning. In this value the term «recreation» is used from 60th 20 century.
A necessary condition of development of R., or recreational activity, existence of the free time making a part of the extra worker (under free understand the time which is not connected with production activity, and also satisfaction of biological and household requirements and taken away for physical, intellectual development and rest) is. In the conditions of the developed socialist society increase in free time, increase in material well-being and cultural level of the population lead to considerable structural changes of requirements, among to-rykh the increasing place R. San begins to borrow. - hens. treatment (see. Resorts , Sanatorium ), rest (see), tourism (see), to-rye before Great October socialist revolution were the privilege only of prosperous segments of the population, became available to all workers. In socialist society the considerable part of expenses on R. is covered from public funds of consumption that characterizes R. as one of elements socialist way of life (see).
Other essential factor of development of R. is the aspiration to reduce influence on the person of the negative effects of scientific and technical progress first of all caused by an intensive urbanization. Concentration of the population in the industrial centers and specific working conditions in the large automated production — the main reason of reduction, characteristic of our time, physical and increases in the psychoemotional loadings involving hypodynamia (see) and «emotional fatigue» from quickly changing sound and visual irritants and a surplus of information. neuropsikhichesdoye the exhaustion caused by living conditions in the large cities and connected not only with production, but also household spheres does not decrease as quickly as physical, on the contrary, its cumulation is observed. Therefore R.'s duration, how many its content, active character of recreational occupations is important not so much. Provided that recovery processes proceed quicker. The river is not only means of compensation of production and non-productive exhaustion, but also satisfies a natural draft of the person to the nature, change of impressions. The so-called recreational explosion which is observed now is also explained by it.
Types and functions of a recreation
On frequency and the territorial principle P. can be divided on short-term, with return to a lodging for the night to places of full-time residence (it assumes use of intracity and residential green suburbs) and long, with a lodging for the night out of the permanent address (long R.'s implementation territorially is almost not limited). Functions which are performed by R. can be divided on medicobiological, welfare (or educational) and economic.
In medicobiological function P. distinguish two aspects — a dignity. - hens. treatment and recreational rest.
However it is necessary to emphasize that though many researchers by a number of criteria (an orientation of sanatorium treatment on recovery of health and to use for these purposes of natural resources) include this treatment in the concept «recreation», it is possible to do it with certain restrictions since in complex sanatorium treatment as a special type of therapy, not only natural, but also preformirovan-ny physical factors, and also a number of other methods and means enter. Besides, in modern step-by-step treatment at some diseases the direction is provided in specialized sanatoria for an aftercare. At the same time the sick-list is issued for all term of a sanatorium therapy. This factor will also not quite be coordinated with the concept «free time» which is one of conditions of River. The recreational rest making the second component medical - biol. functions P., it is designed to recover working capacity, to remove psychological and physical stress.
Welfare functions P. are defined by requirements of the socialist society for formation harmoniously which is comprehensively developed the person. Measures of the Communist Party and the Soviet government for development of mass cognitive tourism are directed to it. Allocate especially cognitive recreational activity connected with surveys of monuments of architecture, cultural and historical complexes, and also acquaintance with new territoriyakhm, rare natural objects, etc.
Economic functions P. consist that it is directed to simple and expanded reproduction of labor. Thanks to R. labor productivity increases, the period of preservation of full-fledged working capacity increases, incidence is reduced that increases fund of operating time. The river promotes performance and other economic functions: creates conditions for the accelerated economic development of certain districts of the country, increase in employment of the population due to recreational service, etc. Thus R. becomes economic category.
It is difficult to draw a clear boundary between the specified functions P. Cognitive aspects are inherent, in particular, and to medicobiological functions P.; excursions and near tourism use at recreational rest and sanatorium treatment.
to the Listed types and functions P. there correspond also the certain recreational institutions combined by the general functional program: sanatorium (see), boarding house (see), rest house (see), camp site, etc. The organization of the specific environment, including and territorial as climatic and landscape conditions can or promote treatment and improvement of the person is necessary for R.'s implementation, or to make on it an adverse effect. Placement of sanatorium for patients with diseases of the musculoskeletal device or bodies of blood circulation in the area with strongly crossed relief is an example of the last.
For implementation of welfare function P. the area shall have natural, historical and architectural and other sights. Attractiveness (attraktivnost) of places of treatment, rest and tourism promotes formation of a so-called recreational flow (number treated, having a rest, tourists). There is a need of creation of the developed system of service treated and having a rest, so-called social and technical infrastructure. All this defines importance of systems research approach to a problem P. and demands introduction of the concept «recreational system». According to V. S. Preobrazhensky — it is the complex social antropoekolo-gichesky system consisting of the interconnected subsystems: treated or having a rest (the central subsystem), natural or cultural territorial complexes, technical devices, service personnel and an operating controls. As R. is differentiated territorially and connected with properties of this or that geographical environment, it is necessary to distinguish the territorial recreational systems (TRS) having a number of properties: stability, reliability, capacity, hierarchy and efficiency.
TRS can have various area. An example of the large TRS covering a number of resorts and resort agglomerations are Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region (see), Southern coast of the Crimea (see). The special TRS gaining distribution recently are national (natural), or recreational parks.
A necessary condition of development of TRS is recreational potential, under the Crimea understand set natural, cultural isto-richeskikh and social and economic premises for the organization and R.'s carrying out in a certain territory. The most important component of recreational potential is made by recreational resources — the components of the environment and objects of activity of the person having medical and recreational properties or representing sociohistorical, esthetic value, or being nature sanctuaries. In a crust, time transition from extensive use of recreational resources to forms of their intensive operation which is followed by active development of recreational infrastructure — a complex of the constructions servicing recreational institutions (transport communications, communication, water supply, the sewerage, etc.) and assuming protection of natural resources and their reproduction is observed.
There are various ways of increase and reproduction of recreational resources: traditional (e.g., hydrogeological investigation and development of new fields of medicinal mineral waters, regeneration of therapeutic muds) and nonconventional (inclusion of objects of the natural and social environment on recreational Wednesday). So, e.g., 100 years ago mountains and caves did not represent a recreational resource, they became it only with emergence of such types of recreational activity as mountaineering, sports tourism and speleoterapiya (see). The same belongs and to production excursions — only in the last decades the nek-ry industrial enterprises became subjects to excursion display.
Problems of studying of patterns of formation of TRS, dynamics of their development and specific operating conditions are the main object of a research of a new branch of science — recreational geography, cover formation and development, 20 century which began in our country in the 60th, were caused by need of systems approach to these questions and carrying out basic cross-disciplinary researches on a joint of natural, public and technical fields of knowledge. The recreational geography using methods of physical and economic geography covers a wide range of questions — from social and economic to naturalists' and is closely connected with the medical geography studying geographical spread of various diseases and influence of the environment on their voznrshnoveniye (see. Geography medical ), with medical climatology (see. Climatology medical ), and also with health care (see). In recreational geography the town-planning problems and problems connected with creation of objects of rest, tourism and excursions figure prominently. Emergence of recreational geography promoted development and association of a number, apparently, of the industries of knowledge far from each other — recreational physiology, recreational hygiene, recreational architecture, etc.
Studying of efficiency of a recreation
according to a number of researchers, only one medical assessment of short-term results a dignity. - hens. treatment, is not enough rest or tourism. So, V.P. Kaznacheev (1979) considers that at economic assessment of R. along with use of cost indexes it is also necessary to consider such criteria as efficiency of a recreational man-hour concerning the subsequent preservation of health, reduction of days of temporary disability and increase in labor productivity.
Insufficiently questions of influence of the place and time a dignity are still studied. - hens. treatments, rest and tourism on a human body depending on the permanent address, age, the nature of work, type of higher nervous activity, etc. The need for such researches follows, in particular, from the established dependence between age of the person and motive loadings, shown it various on duration, size and character. So, at the organization of recreational activity of children it is necessary to consider that the need for intensive motive loadings and for a variety of impressions is inherent to them. On average and advanced age motive loadings shall have more uniform character and proceed in quieter emotional situation. It is reasonable to investigate adequacy of development a dignity. - hens. network and all system P. in relation to specific regions taking into account kli-matogeografnchesky conditions, placement of territorial and industrial complexes, specifics of demographic structure of the population, and also character and incidence. So, the system of recreational actions for the population which arrived to develop new territories in the east and the North of the country from other climatic zones, shall be counted, according to V. P. Kaznacheev's data, on rest of the prevailing majority of almost healthy faces of young and middle age in backpackings and rest houses in contrast klimatogeografichesky zones — Black Sea Coast, the Baltics, in the Far East that allows to stop hron. the pathology which aggravated in unusual conditions for them. For elderly people the solution of this question demands care. Fortifying rest of healthy children is most effective in geographical conditions, usual for them; rest in the south is not rational since after return to severe climatic conditions of places of full-time residence the risk of development at them of the diseases connected with overcooling increases. Most of sick children and adults of these regions it is reasonable to treat in local a dignity. - hens. institutions.
The principles of recreational division into districts
degree of development of recreational functions and «density» of recreational facilities is taken As a basis of recreational division into districts of the territory of the USSR. According to it allocate 4 large zones, to-rye, in turn, are subdivided into certain districts by the principle of specialization on different types of P. The I zone — the South of the European part of the USSR (includes the South of Ukraine, including the Crimea, Transcaucasia, the North Caucasus and Nizhny Novgorod of Don); The II zone — a midland of the European part of the USSR (from zap. borders of the USSR to the Urals), it includes Moldova, average and northern parts of Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic republics, central and sowing. - zap. districts, Volga region; The III zone — an average and southern strip of an Asian part of the USSR (from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean); The IV zone — the North of the USSR. More than 80% of places in sanatoria and boarding houses with treatment are the share of I and II zones where over a half of the population of the country lives. Uneven distribution of recreational facilities is characteristic of the III zone. Having numerous fields of mineral waters and to lay down. dirt, favorable climatic and landscape conditions, and also interesting objects for tourism, this zone has no rather developed transport and social infrastructure yet. Intensive economic development of the East of the country does perspective and its recreational development, number of territories of this region is especially convenient for creation of national parks (Baikal, etc.). The IV zone is inhabited and mastered less others, about the forming industrial complexes of the region the network of local recreational institutions, near the Kola peninsula — alpine skiing tourism develops. There are perspectives for formation in the north of specialized districts of tourism.
The specified scheme of recreational division into districts is indicative. It can change in process of economic development of new territories. Most it belongs to the Regions of Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East.
At recreational division into districts surely take local climatic resources into account. They can or limit, or actively promote development of certain types of rest and tourism in different districts during nek-ry seasons or during the whole year. So, for bathings in natural reservoirs it is required that water temperature in them was not lower than 16 — 17 °, and nervousness did not exceed 3 points. For walking on skis snow cover not less than 20 thick hardly etc. is necessary. Climatic conditions in many respects define uneven attendance during different seasons of certain recreational districts. The particularly important for determination of recreational value of the district becomes duration of the period favorable for summer or winter recreational occupations. The following criteria are the basis for division into districts of the territory of the USSR on degree of usefulness of climate for summer types of R.: 1) optimum weather (comfortable); 2) weather of average usefulness (sublump-fortnaya) — hot and cool; 3) adverse (discomfortable) — very hot, rainy and cold. The periods of comfortable and subcomfortable weathers are favorable, and discomfortable weathers — the adverse periods for all types of rest and tourism.
Also other environment, napr, seismic danger in many the southern mountain districts, attractive to tourism and rest, avalanche and a seleopasnost, characteristic of mountain districts, marshiness of nek-ry flat territories can act as limiting.
One of aspects of recreational division into districts is rational placement and a ratio a dignity.-:kur. and tourist institutions depending on natural, in particular medical, resources in this or that territory. So, coasts of the warm seas, the Baltics, the Region of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region having unique natural resources historically developed as resort areas. However the same territories owing to favorable climate and a landscape have big attractiveness and for tourism; therefore the areas valuable in to lay down. the relation, quite often borrow under construction of tourist centers, campings, or they are in close proximity to sanatoria. In some cases residential suburbs of short-term rest «interfere» in to lay down. zones and zones of long rest — the location of local (suburban) sanatoria and rest houses. Need of creation of the general differentiated scheme of development of vacation spots, tourism, a sanatorium therapy, edge ripened would coordinate development plans for all views of the River. This need is caused also by the increasing volume of capital investments, involvement of the increasing contingents of the population in R., and also importance of problems of environmental control of recreational zones.
Ecological aspects of a recreation
Problems of protection of the biosphere in recreational zones are on a joint of two important directions in life of society — health protection of the person and environmental controls (see). Owing to escalating involvement of the population in recreational activity of load of natural complexes (recreational loads), under to-rymi understand attendance treated, having a rest, tourists of a certain territory for a unit of time, sharply increase. Restriction and optimization of recreational loads is necessary, in justification to-rykh the criterion considering natural reducing powers of natural resources shall lie. Standards of recreational loads shall be developed for specific districts depending on their klimatogeografichesky and landscape conditions.
The concept of the so-called recreational digressiya (retreats, deviations) connected with transformation of a natural ecosystem in semi-natural, structure and function a cut is put forward are changed in comparison with natural, and edges are kept by ability to self-recovery only at certain recreational loads. Distinguish five stages of a digressiya. Loadings at the I—II stages are considered optimum, at the III—IV stages — admissible, i.e. not leading to loss by an ecosystem of stability. At the same time it must be kept in mind, however, that the size of the general loading depends on a time factor: even at the loadings corresponding to the III—IV stages there is gradual cumulation of the changes in an ecosystem which are expressed as so-called residual deformations. Loads of the V stages are irreversible.
Special sharpness is gained by questions of nature protection in the most visited recreational territories — coasts of the warm seas, water reservoirs. Excessive recreational loads lead to bystry destruction of a sward, consolidation of the soil, change of its properties, etc. At the same time it must be kept in mind that productivity of a natural vegetable cover is various in the different latitudes differing hydrogeological, temperature, soil, etc. in conditions. So, according to N. A. Danilova (1980), near Black Sea Coast it makes to 200 c/hectare a year, near Moscow — 100 c/hectare, Leningrad — 80 c/hectare, on coast of the White Sea 60 — 40 c/hectare. Thus, resuming of the trodden vegetable cover in the south happens more in high gear, however and here it is impossible to exceed limits of permissible recreational loads. Besides, there is a concept of the so-called psychophysiological capacity of recreational zones determining the possible number of the people who are at the same time in them at a cut for each of them the psychophysiological comfort remains.
A complex problem is also resolution of conflicts between extent of improvement of the territory and preservation its natural, in particular landscape, value. Optimization of functioning of the «resort town» system the urbanization had no the damaging effect on natural resources is among such problems. For the present there is poorly studied a question of the admissible extent of implementation of technical constructions in natural complexes which is providing preservation of a natural landscape and at the same time increasing its resistance to loadings. Value of this question is defined also by the fact that «naturalness» of the nature attracts the ground mass of vacationers. At the same time reasonable implementation of engineering constructions, their active role in functioning of resorts and recreation areas it is characteristic of new, more high level of their development. In some cases increase in a role of technical constructions (improvement of beaches, construction of klimatolechebny pavilions, etc.) leads to wider use of natural resources. So, e.g., development of the resorts of Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region depends on a possibility of introduction of new mi-neraloprovod, Greater Sochi — from perspectives of expansion of beaches.
It should be noted that the opinion on harm of any intervention in the environment, any its change by the person is not quite justified. Practice shows that the environment which is at the II—III stage of a digressiya (e.g., not the continuous wood is preferable to rest, and rarefied in Krom the underbrush and where open spaces alternate with arrays of trees is destroyed).
One of types of nature protection actions is the so-called recreational organization of the territory. E.g., improvement of the territory of the wood (making of network of footpaths, paths, designation of glades for cultivation of fires, etc.) keeps the forest area more at the same recreational loads. Along with it also the recreational capacity of such territory increases.
The problem of interaction of R. from a drugikhma the industries of the national economy is important. Recreational resources have certain margins of safety; anthropogenic loads, pollution by waste products of the industrial and agricultural enterprises located in recreational zones can lead to their exhaustion and degradation. Territorial specialization of R., combination it with other types of economic activity shall be carried out taking into account the greatest social and economic efficiency defined not on industry, and at the economic level.
In protection of the biosphere of recreational zones promotion of nature protection actions and ecological knowledge among the population as the loading maintained by recreational zones depends not only on the number of visits, but also on culture of behavior of the person outdoors (see is of great importance. Environmental control ).
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V. V. Poltoranov.