RAUWOLFIA (Rauwolfia) — a sort of medicinal plants from this. dogbane family (Apocynaceae).
Distinguish up to 150 views of the River. The greatest practical value has R. snake (Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.) — a long-term evergreen bush 20 — 60 cm high with the direct stalk and a vertical rhizome passing in utonchayushchiysya, a wrinkled root up to 40 cm long of brown color.
Leaves are lanceolate, slightly pointed, naked, dense; are located verticils on 3 — 4. Flowers small, dark pink, sometimes white, collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences (fig). Grows on the Hindustan and Indochina peninsulas, in Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
Rhizomes and roots P. of snake contain St. 20 indole alkaloids, to-rye on a chemical structure and basicity factor divide into three groups: the tertiary indole (weak) bases — Reserpinum (see), restsinnamin, yohimbine; tertiary indolinovy (average force) the bases — Ajmalinum (see), etc.; the quarternary angidroniyevy (strong) bases — serpentine, etc. The specified alkaloids contain as well in other types of R., napr, in R. greyish (R. canescens L.) and R. emetic (R. vomitoria Afz.).
Pharmakol. R.'s action is caused by the sum of alkaloids, from to-rykh the greatest value have Reserpinum and restsinamin, the rendering sedative and hypotensive effect, and also Ajmalinum and serpentine having antiarrhythmic activity.
In medical practice apply as individual alkaloids P. (Reserpinum, restsinnamin, Ajmalinum), and total drugs, napr, Raunatinum.
Raunatinum (Raunatinum; joint venture. B) — the drug containing the sum of alkaloids of roots P. snake or R. emetic the basic from to-rykh is Reserpinum.
Has hypotensive effect. The hypotensive effect depends hl. obr. from existence in drug of Reserpinum it is also caused by both sympatholytic action, and influence on the central mechanisms of regulation of blood circulation. On hypotensive activity Raunatinum is close to Reserpinum, but its action develops more slowly, than action of Reserpinum. Raunatinum is applied to treatment of an idiopathic hypertensia of I and IIA of a stage. Appoint inside after food. Usually treatment is begun with reception of 1 tablet (0,002 g) for the night. Then the dose of drug is gradually increased and brought to 5 — 6 tablets a day. After achievement of optimum therapeutic effect the dose of drug is gradually reduced to 1 — 2 tablets a day. Duration of treatment is defined in each case individually. Along with Raunatinum it is possible to apply other antihypertensives. At the same time doses of ganglioblokator, a dichlothiazide and Octadinum should be reduced twice in order to avoid sharp hypotension.
At correctly picked up dosage Raunatinum almost does not cause by-effects. In some cases the general weakness, swelling of a mucous membrane of a nose, dispeptic frustration and allergic reactions can be observed. At long reception of Raunatinum in high doses development of a depression is possible. By-effects pass at reduction of a dose or after short-term (1 — 3 day) a break in administration of drug.
Raunatinum is contraindicated at the increased individual sensitivity to it, an aggravation of a peptic ulcer of a stomach and depressions.
Form of release: tablets, the coated and containing 0,002 g sums of alkaloids. Keep in well corked banks or bottles of dark glass.
Bibliography: Clinical pharmacology, under the editorship of V. V. Zakusov, page 165, M., 1978; M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 70, M., 1977; Muravyeva D. A. A pharmacognosy (with fundamentals of biochemistry of medicinal plants), page 373, M., 1978.
Ya. I. Hadzhay.