RASHES (synonym efflorestsention) — the various morphological changes of skin (dieback) or mucous membranes (enantema) which are external objective expression of pathological process.
Morfol. skin S.' elements (see. Skin ), their color, a form, a consistence, localization and other signs in total with character of skin (coloring, a condition of secretory activity, elasticity, etc.) and inflammatory process (serous, purulent, proliferative) are the most important symptom of this or that disease of skin.
In total morfol. elements of skin rashes conditionally divide on primary and secondary. To primary morfol. to elements C. carry spot (see), papule (see), hillock (see), node (see), blister (see), a bubble and a bubble (see. Vesicle ), pustule, or pustule (see), cyst (see). Depending on character primary morfol. an element C. can be spotty (e.g., rozeolezny, petekhialny), papular, violent, etc.
Secondary morfol. elements C. — pigmentation (see), scale (see), crust (see), crack (see), graze, or excoriation (see), ulcer (see), hem (see), vegetation (see), lichenification or likhenization (see), erosion (see).
Distinguish monomorphic rashes when S. consists of any one look primary morfol. an element (e.g., rozeolezny S. at syphilis, papular — at psoriasis, bubble — at chicken pox, etc.), and polymorphic when S. is presented by several types primary morfol. elements (e.g., S. at a mnogoformny exudative erythema, herpetiform dermatitis of Dyuringa, etc.). False polymorphism is characterized by existence of one type of primary and several types of secondary cells of S. (e.g., at a vulgar lupus, an inborn violent epidermolysis, disgid-rotichesky eczema, etc.). The page can be limited, widespread (diffusion and disseminated), universal, to be symmetrized and is asymmetric, sometimes on the course of nerves, to tend to merge among themselves or to remain isolated, to be grouped with formation of various geometrical figures, to have favourite localization, to be followed by a number of subjective feelings (an itch, burning, a pricking, morbidity), degree to-rykh depends on specific features of an organism, condition of a nervous system, etc., or not to disturb the patient.
Different types of rash — see tsvetn. fig. 1 — 25.
Exogenous factors (mechanical, physical, chemical, bacteria, vegetable and zooparasites, etc.) and endogenous can be an origin of S. (functional disturbances of endocrine organs, went. - kish. path, c. N of page, metabolism, balance of vitamins, immunol. changes, hereditary factors, etc.). Page not only objective symptom of skin diseases; it can be an important symptom inf. diseases (e.g., measles, scarlet fever, typhus, etc.), malignant new growths of internals (see. Paraoncological dermatosis ).
Bibliography: Apatenko A. K. Epithelial tumors and malformations of skin, M., 1973; Differential diagnosis of skin diseases, under the editorship of. A. A. Studni-tsina, page 33, M., 1983; To Cards y-sh e in A. I. Skin and venereal diseases, Kiev, 1964; The Multivolume guide to a dermatovenereology, under the editorship of S. T. Pavlov, t. 2, page 60, 88, L., 1961, bibliogr.; Popkhr of ist of the Item. Skin diseases at children's age, the lane with bolg., Sofia, 1963; Pototsky I. I. itorsuyev N. A. Skin and venereal diseases, Kiev, 1978; Skrip-kin Yu. K. Skin and venereal diseases, M., 1979; Lever W. F. a. S with h and - umburg-Lever G. Histopathology of the skin, Philadelphia, 1975; Morphology of human, ed. by J. Karasek a. G. M. Cvetkova, Brno, 1980.
B. A. Berenbeyn; G. V. Banchenko, S. S. Kryazhev (tsvetn. fig. 2 — 7, 9—24), V. V. Vladimirov (tsvetn. fig. 1, 8, 25).