From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RASHES (synonym efflorestsention) — the various morphological changes of skin (dieback) or mucous membranes (enantema) which are external objective expression of pathological process.

Morfol. skin S.' elements (see. Skin ), their color, a form, a consistence, localization and other signs in total with character of skin (coloring, a condition of secretory activity, elasticity, etc.) and inflammatory process (serous, purulent, proliferative) are the most important symptom of this or that disease of skin.

Fig. 1 — 25. Outward of various rashes on skin and mucous membranes. Fig. 1. Inflammatory spotty rozeolezny rash on skin of buttocks and hips at a toxidermia. Fig. 2. Hemorrhagic (petekhialny) rash on skin of a buttock and a hip at a toxidermia. Fig. 3. A vascular drain menocelis on skin of a shin at multiple hemorrhagic sarcoma of Kaposha. Fig. 4. Rash in the form of inflammatory drain spots — erity (1) and hemorrhagic spots — petechias (2) on skin of feet at a medicinal toxidermia. Fig. 5. Rash in the form of vascular spots on an under lip (angioma). Fig. 6. Rash in the form of pigmeytny spots on skin of an upper extremity at Leshke's syndrome. Fig. 7. Rash in the form of a nevus pigmentosus on a mucous membrane of an under lip at Peytts's syndrome — Egersa — Touraine.
Fig. 8. Urtikarny rash (in the form of blisters) on skin of a breast at a small tortoiseshell. Fig. 9. Vesicular and violent rash on skin of an upper extremity at dermatitis of Dyuringa (1 — vesicles; 2 — bubbles). Fig. 10. Vesicular rash on an under lip at herpes. Fig. 11. Violent rash in the form of bubbles, a part from which was opened with formation of erosion, and secondary pigmentation at a vulgar pemphigus (1 — bubbles, 2 — pigmentation, 3 — erosion). Fig. 12. Erosion on site the opened bubbles on skin at a vulgar pemphigus. Fig. 13. Aphthous erosive rash on a hard palate at herpetic stomatitis.
Fig. 14. The papular shelled drain rash on skin of a trunk and extremities at psoriasis. Fig. 15. Papular rash in the form of plaques on skin of brushes at psoriasis. Fig. 16. Rash in the form of dry papules vegitans (are specified by shooters) on skin at Hopf's akrokeratoza. Fig. 17. Rash in the form of wet papules vegitans in the field of an anal orifice at syphilis. Fig. 18. Keratosic papular enanthesis of a sole at syphilis. Fig. 19. Papular rash (it is specified by an arrow) on an inner surface of a cheek at red flat herpes.
Fig. 20. Papular rash in language at syphilis. Fig. 21. Pustular rash in the form of ecthymas on skin of a trunk and an upper extremity at syphilis. Fig. 22. Pustular rash with formation of massive crusts on an under lip at a pyoderma. Fig. 23. Ospennovidny pustular rash on skin at syphilis. Fig. 24. Grumous rash on skin of a forehead at a tubercular lupus. Fig. 25. Rash in the form of nodes on skin of a trunk and extremities at a reticulum cell sarcomatosis.

In total morfol. elements of skin rashes conditionally divide on primary and secondary. To primary morfol. to elements C. carry spot (see), papule (see), hillock (see), node (see), blister (see), a bubble and a bubble (see. Vesicle ), pustule, or pustule (see), cyst (see). Depending on character primary morfol. an element C. can be spotty (e.g., rozeolezny, petekhialny), papular, violent, etc.

Secondary morfol. elements C. — pigmentation (see), scale (see), crust (see), crack (see), graze, or excoriation (see), ulcer (see), hem (see), vegetation (see), lichenification or likhenization (see), erosion (see).

Distinguish monomorphic rashes when S. consists of any one look primary morfol. an element (e.g., rozeolezny S. at syphilis, papular — at psoriasis, bubble — at chicken pox, etc.), and polymorphic when S. is presented by several types primary morfol. elements (e.g., S. at a mnogoformny exudative erythema, herpetiform dermatitis of Dyuringa, etc.). False polymorphism is characterized by existence of one type of primary and several types of secondary cells of S. (e.g., at a vulgar lupus, an inborn violent epidermolysis, disgid-rotichesky eczema, etc.). The page can be limited, widespread (diffusion and disseminated), universal, to be symmetrized and is asymmetric, sometimes on the course of nerves, to tend to merge among themselves or to remain isolated, to be grouped with formation of various geometrical figures, to have favourite localization, to be followed by a number of subjective feelings (an itch, burning, a pricking, morbidity), degree to-rykh depends on specific features of an organism, condition of a nervous system, etc., or not to disturb the patient.

Different types of rash — see tsvetn. fig. 1 — 25.

Exogenous factors (mechanical, physical, chemical, bacteria, vegetable and zooparasites, etc.) and endogenous can be an origin of S. (functional disturbances of endocrine organs, went. - kish. path, c. N of page, metabolism, balance of vitamins, immunol. changes, hereditary factors, etc.). Page not only objective symptom of skin diseases; it can be an important symptom inf. diseases (e.g., measles, scarlet fever, typhus, etc.), malignant new growths of internals (see. Paraoncological dermatosis ).

Bibliography: Apatenko A. K. Epithelial tumors and malformations of skin, M., 1973; Differential diagnosis of skin diseases, under the editorship of. A. A. Studni-tsina, page 33, M., 1983; To Cards y-sh e in A. I. Skin and venereal diseases, Kiev, 1964; The Multivolume guide to a dermatovenereology, under the editorship of S. T. Pavlov, t. 2, page 60, 88, L., 1961, bibliogr.; Popkhr of ist of the Item. Skin diseases at children's age, the lane with bolg., Sofia, 1963; Pototsky I. I. itorsuyev N. A. Skin and venereal diseases, Kiev, 1978; Skrip-kin Yu. K. Skin and venereal diseases, M., 1979; Lever W. F. a. S with h and - umburg-Lever G. Histopathology of the skin, Philadelphia, 1975; Morphology of human, ed. by J. Karasek a. G. M. Cvetkova, Brno, 1980.

B. A. Berenbeyn; G. V. Banchenko, S. S. Kryazhev (tsvetn. fig. 2 — 7, 9—24), V. V. Vladimirov (tsvetn. fig. 1, 8, 25).