RADISHCHEV Alexander Nikolaevich (1749 — 1802) — the Russian writer, the philosopher, the revolutionary.
Studied in 1762 — 1766 in the Pazhesky case, in 1767 — 1771 studied legal, natural sciences, and also medicine in Leipzig un-those. Upon return to Russia served in the Senate. Since 1775 in resignation.
A. N. Radishchev actively was engaged in literary activity, was the author of the Russia's first work of revolutionary poetry — ides «Liberty» (1783). His main work — «A travel from St. Petersburg» (1790) — is sent to Moscow against a serfdom and the imperial government. It is condemned and banished it is termless in the Ilim jail. After Paul I (1801) death it is returned from exile to St. Petersburg, served in the Commission on drawing up laws. Demanded destruction of serfdom and class privileges.
Being in exile, A. N. Radishchev actively put into practice the medical knowledge, studied spread of various diseases among local population, was engaged in smallpox vaccination; described (1791) currents of a malignant anthrax; raised a question of inoculations against measles. In exile wrote the philosophical work «About the Person, about His Mortality and Immortality» (1792, it is published in 1809) where upheld primacy of life, pointed out similarity of a structure of a body of the person and animals, stated evolutionary views of development live in the nature, protected the idea of unity and interrelation of the sincere and corporal phenomena. In the book «Travel from St. Petersburg to Moscow» A. N. Radishchev wrote about prevalence of venereal diseases, opened their social roots. In a note «About a statute» (1801 — 1802) insisted on profound studying of a condition of the medical help and health of the population of Russia. Called for eradication of alcoholism, supported the state contempt of patients.
A. N. Radishchev's ideas exerted impact on outlook of Decembrists, A.S. Pushkin, A. I. Herzen and succeeding generations of the Russian revolutionaries. A. N. Radishchev's views gained development in works I. E. Dyadkovsky and other progressive doctors of Russia.
Works: Chosen philosophical compositions, M., 1949.
Bibliography: E. D. and Yakubov E. N. scraps. Great Russian revolutionary thinker A. N. Radishchev, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 4, page 44, 1952; Vengrova I. V. and Shilinis Yu. A. Social hygiene in the USSR, page 17, M., 1976; Vida-that V. K. O of medical activity of A. N. Radishchev in Siberian exile, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 12, page 57, 1965; Dionesov S. M. Physiological views A. N. Radishcheva, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 29, No. 6, page 1319, 1979.
V. A. Bazanov.