RADIOLOGY medical [rentgeno-(on a name B. X-ray) Greek logos the doctrine] — the field of clinical medicine, the cut is a subject the theory and practice of use of x-ray emission for studying of norm and pathology, recognition and early detection of diseases. The main sections P. are the medical X-ray engineering studying the device, installation and operation of the x-ray equipment (see. X-ray apparatus ), and radiodiagnosis (see), developing questions of recognition of damages and diseases of various bodies on the basis of data X-ray inspection (see). Originally entered R. as the section roentgenotherapy (see), but in process of development of new methods of beam treatment the roentgenotherapy became a part radiation therapy (see). It should be noted that in many countries for designation P. the term «radiology» is accepted, and radiation therapy and radionuclide (radio isotope) diagnosis are called respectively radiotheraphy and a nuclear medicine.
The main method P. is studying of a structure and function of various bodies and systems and their pathology with the help x-ray emission (see). The body of the person represents the heterogeneous environment for x-ray emission — in different bodies and fabrics radiation is absorbed in unequal degree in view of their different thickness, density and chemical structure. All methods rentgenol. researches are based on qualitative and in some cases quantification of a bunch of the x-ray emission which passed through an object and caught by receivers of radiation — a x-ray film (at a X-ray analysis), the fluorescent screen (at roentgenoscopy), a selenic plate (at an electrox-ray analysis) or crystal detectors of radiation (e.g., at a computer tomography).
Important theoretical part P. is x-ray skialogiya (see), studying patterns of formation of the x-ray shadow image.
The river arose in 1895 after discovery of radiation by V. Rentgen, after called by his name (see. X-ray emission). In 1896 in many countries, including in Russia, the first were carried out rentgenol. researches of patients. S. P. Grigoriev, Ja. M. Rosenblat, H were R. pioneers in Russia. N. Cherkasov, A. K. Yanovsky, in Germany — H. E. Albers-Schon-berg, A. Köhler, R. Gra-shey, in Austria — G. Goljtsknekht, in France — A. Bekler, Leda-le - bar (R. Ledoux-Lebard), in the USA — Beck (S. Beck), Caldwell (W. E. Caldwell), in Sweden — Y. Forssell. The significant role in R.'s development as sciences was played by M. I. Nemyonov, A. E. Prozorov, S. A. Reynberg, V. A. Fa-nardzhyan, G. A. Zedgenidze, D. G. Rokhlin, I. L. Tager, and abroad — di Abreu (M. of de Abreu), A. Akerlund, H. Assmann Berg (H. N of Berg), H. R. Schinz, Barshon (Th. Barsony), D. Vallebona, Kaffi (T. Caffey), J. Pfaler, etc.
Domestic scientists made a big contribution to formation of R. Odnako weakness of industrial and technical base interfered with R.'s development in Russia. Only at the Soviet power R. reached original blossoming and rentgenol. the help became available to all population. In 1918 in Petrograd it was open State radiological, radiological and cancer for in-t (nowadays Central research X-ray radiological by in-t of M3 of the USSR). In 1920 in Kharkiv the Ukrainian radiological academy transformed in 1921 in Ukrainian X-ray radiological and oncological was created by in-t (nowadays Kharkiv scientific research institute of medical radiology M3 of USSR). In 1920 it was based Kiev X-ray radiological by in-t (nowadays Research X-ray radiological and oncological in in-t of M3 of USSR). In 1924 in Moscow in-t Narkomzdrava began to function X-ray (nowadays Moscow awards of the Labour Red Banner research X-ray radiological in-t of M3 of RSFSR). Similar institutes in different years were open in Baku, Voronezh, Yerevan, Odessa, Rosto - ve - on - Don, Sverdlovsk, Tashkent, Tbilisi. The first independent department P. was founded in 1919 in Petrograd in-those improvements of doctors. Now in the USSR 6 research in-t of a X-ray radiological profile, 16 departments of a radiology and radiology of in-t of improvement of doctors, 104 departments of a radiology and radiology of medical in-t and medical faculties of universities function.
Formation and R.'s development happened in close interrelation with requests and progress of adjacent areas of knowledge. Progress of electronics, automatic equipment and television equipment led to revolutionary changes in X-ray engineering, by the birth of such leading methods of modern R. as X-ray tele-vision (see Television in medicine), an electrox-ray analysis (see), an angiography (see), a computer tomography (see the Tomography computer). Opportunities rentgenol. a method in studying of morphology of the person caused development radioanatomies (see), edges studies a form and a structure of a human body taking into account specific, age and constitutional features of bodies, their relationship, functions and impacts on them of various environmental factors. In the last decades rentgenol. the method is more and more widely applied in an experiment, in fiziol. and patofi-ziol. researches. With the help rentgenol. researches it is possible to study activity of various bodies and to watch dynamics patol. processes. So was born rentgenol. physiology — an important part of normal and pathological human physiology. Problems of fight against dangerous it is also hidden by the proceeding diseases caused development of the X-ray prevention which is engaged in the organization and carrying out test rentgenol. inspections of big groups of the population. In the USSR they are provided fluorography (see), with the help the cut is systematically investigated by bodies of a chest cavity at all adult population and mammary glands at women. The closest bonds connect R. to the main a wedge, disciplines since radiodiagnosis is an important component of diagnosis of internal, surgical, oncological and other diseases, including at children (children's R.).
The most urgent directions of scientific research according to R. are development of the theory of mass test inspections of the population for identification of early forms it is hidden the proceeding diseases, including tumors; drawing up comprehensive algoritmizirovanny programs of inspection of bodies and systems; development of questions rentgenol. semiotics of the earliest morfol. and functional displays of various diseases; creation and improvement X-ray surgical, including endovascular, methods of treatment (see. X-ray endovascular surgery ); improvement of system and organization of practical and scientific work on R. and studying of economy of x-ray business; development of scientific bases of teaching River. The solution of all these problems cannot be carried out without cooperation with representatives of other industries of knowledge — organizers of health care, physics, technicians, mathematicians, engineers, radio biologists, clinical physicians.
Modern R. — one of the most technically armed disciplines in medicine. The powerful x-ray industry delivering X-ray diagnostic installations, television devices, computer tomographs, the protective equipment is created. In the USSR and other socialist countries the x-ray industry successfully develops on the basis of cooperation within SEV. In the USSR the plants on production of X-ray apparatus and the equipment work in Moscow, Kiev, Aktyubinsk and other cities.
The river as science violently develops. The most intensive researches are conducted in the USSR, GDR, Germany, Sweden, France, the USA, Italy, Japan. The Soviet scientists made an essential contribution to development of River. Distinctiveness Soviet rentgenol. schools the advanced scientific methodology and a clinical orientation is. In the USSR the foundation mass rentgenol is laid. inspections of the population and urgent radiodiagnosis. A merit of domestic science was the field and naval R.'s creation connected with M. I. Nemyonov, S. A. Reynberg, G. A. Zedgenidze's names. In the USSR all scientific research according to R. is supervised by Scientific council on a complex problem «A radiology and radiology» at Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Scientific research is conducted more than in 150 specialized institutions. Development of scientific bases of R. busy more than 1 thousand scientists and many thousands army of practical doctors. By the end of 1979 among radiologists St. 100 doctors and more than 500 candidates of medical sciences worked. For 1961 — 1980 in the USSR more than 250 inventions in
the area P. P. were registered is an obligatory subject matter on medical, sanitary and hygienic, pediatric and stomatol. faculties of medical in-comrades. Departments of a radiology and radiology of medical in-t train future doctors for work in the conditions of broad use of ionizing radiation in science, the equipment, the national economy and medicine. The main guide to R. for students is the textbook «Medical Radiology» written by L. D. Lindenbraten and L. B. Naumov. Postdegree preparation includes such forms in areas P. as internship (see), a wedge, an internship (see. Internship clinical ), cycles of primary specialization, cycles of the general and thematic improvement in in-ta of improvement of doctors and at faculties of improvement of medical in-t, individual improvement in workplaces. Training of teachers and scientists is carried out in a postgraduate study, in-ta of improvement of doctors and in research in-ta. Abroad there is no uniform system of training of radiologists. In most cases preparation is carried out on 2 — 3-year courses at departments of a radiology pi of radiology and in large rentgenol. departments.
The general management of X-ray radiological service in the USSR is performed of Head department of the treatment-and-prophylactic help of M3 of the USSR with the assistance of the chief radiologist and the chief radiologist of M3 of the USSR (see. Health care , Chief specialist ). Management of X-ray radiological service in federal republics is performed of the relevant departments in the Ministries of Health of federal republics. In autonomous republics, edges and areas X-ray radiological departments bodies of health care and the chief X-ray radiologists, and also organizational and methodical departments of leading X-ray radiological research institutes of federal republics direct. At absence a rentgenora-diol. in-t management is performed of X-ray radiological departments of republican hospitals. Organizational and methodical control of work of all X-ray departments (see) it is carried out by X-ray radiological departments (in the past the being called X-ray radiological stations or the centers), to-rye will be organized as a part of regional, regional, republican hospitals. In these departments radiologists, doctors-radiologists, engineers, X-ray technicians, meter men work. X-ray radio-gramophones. departments implement new diagnostic methods and treatments, control quality of diagnosis and treatment in X-ray diagnostic and radio-gramophones, offices, prepare shots of meter men for to lay down. institutions, monitor implementation of requirements of antiactinic protection (see), quality of X-ray equipments and the protective equipment (see. Radiological protective and techno and logical equipment). Rentgenora-diol. departments take part in planning of network of X-ray departments in the republic, the region, area, in definition of need for medical and technical shots, the capital and service equipment etc. They provide advice at design again organized and the reorganization existing x-ray and radio-gramophones, offices and also together with bodies of sanitary inspection participate in inclusion in operation of these offices.
Creation of science foundations of a radiology and radiology was of great importance for R.'s development. In 1919 the Russian association of radiologists and radiologists transformed in 1924 in All-Union scientific to radiologists and radiologists was organized. By 1977 it combined 15 republican about-in and St. 12 Ltd companies of members. Departments about-va are available in all regions, areas and the large cities of the USSR. It is a collective member of the International society of radiologists formed in 1953 in Edinburgh. In 1961 in Zurich the International association of teachers of medical radiology, and in 1962 in Strasbourg — the European association of radiologists was created.
Periodically there pass the international congresses of radiologists and radiologists. The I congress took place in 1925 in London, II — in 1928 in Stockholm, III — in 1931 in Paris, IV — in 1934 in Zurich, V — in 1937 in Chicago, VI — in 1950 in London, VII — in 1953 in Copenhagen, VIII — in 1956 in Mexico City, IX — in 1959 in Munich, X — in 1962 in Montreal, XI — in 1965 in Rome, XII — in 1969 in Tokyo, XIII — in 1973 in Madrid, XIV — in 1977 in Rio de Janeiro, XV — in 1981 in Brussels.
The I Constituent congress of radiologists and radiologists in our country took place in December, 1916 in Moscow. The II congress took place in 1924 at first in Moscow, then in Leningrad, III — in 1925 in Leningrad, IV — in 1926 in Leningrad, V — in 1928 in Kiev, VI — in 1931 in Moscow, VII — in 1958 in Saratov, VIII — in 1964 in Tashkent, IX — in 1970 in Tbilisi, X — in 1977 in Yerevan.
The first Russian magazine on a radiology «The x-ray messenger» was published in 1907 in Odessa (3 releases). In 1915 — 1917 there were «News of the Kiev x-ray commission» (15 releases). Since 1920 there is «A bulletin of a radiology and radiology» — the main publication of the Soviet radiologists, abstract magazines are issued, in to-rykh questions P. are taken up (the short list of periodicals according to R. — see the bibliography).
See also Radiology medical
History — The bibliography of the Russian radiology in 1896 — 1940, sost. A. E. Molotkov, L., 1941; 3 e d e-N and d z e G. A. and P and l y and G. F. The Soviet X-ray-radiologists to the 50 anniversary of formation of the USSR, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., L» 6, page. And, 1972; Lindenbra-t e L. D N. About integration of medical sciences and specialization of radiologists, in the same place, No. 4, page 3, 1967; it, Achievements and problems of the Soviet radiology, Klin, medical, t. 55, No. 10, page 34, 1977; Materials on stories of a radiology in the USSR, under the editorship of S. A. Reynberg, M., 1948; Sketches of development of a medical radiology, under the editorship of S. A. Reynberg, M., 1948; Reynberg S.A. About integration of a rentgenologna, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., L1 - 4, page 3, 1965; Ehrenbuch der Rontgenologen und Radiologen aller Na-tionen, hrsg. v. H. Holthusen u. a., Mun-chen — B., 1959; Grigg E. R. N. The trial of the invisible light, from X-Strahlen to radio(bio)logy, Springfield, 1965.
Guides, textbooks, reference media — D e m and d to and P. N. N and IJI of N and-r e l m and A. I N. Radiodiagnosis in obstetrics and gynecology, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Dyachenko of V. A. Rent-genoosteologiya, M., 1954; Zedgeni Flee. And. and L and N d e N r and t e L. D N. Urgent radiodiagnosis, L., 1957, bibliogr.; Kagan E. M. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of a gullet, M., 1968; Braids and certain N. S. Disturbances of development of the bone and joint device, L., 1966, bibliogr.; L and at N about - in and I. G. Rentgenoanatomiya of a skeleton, M., 1981, bibliogr.; Lindenbra-t e L. D. Rentgenologiya's N of a liver and bilious ways, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Lindenbraten L. D. and L I with with F. M. Medical radiology, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Lindenbr and - t e N L. D. and Naum about in L. B. Radiological syndromes and diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, M., 1972; they, Medical radiology, M., 1974; they, Methods of X-ray inspection of bodies and systems of the person, Tashkent, 1976; Maykova - Stroganova V. of Page and F and N to e l ý-matte M. A. Bones and joints in the x-ray image, t. 1 — Extremities, L., 1 957, t. 2 — the Trunk, L., 1952, t. 3 — the Head, L., 1955. bibliogr.; N the island and to about in and AA. 3. Radiological changes at diseases of system of blood, M., 1982, bibliogr.; R and to and N And. X. and Akiyerbekov A. A. Radiodiagnosis of diseases and damages of a diaphragm, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Reynberg S.A. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of bones and joints, book 1 — 2, M., 1964; Radiodiagnosis of heart diseases and vessels, under the editorship of M. A. Ivanitskaya, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Rosen-Shtraukh L. S., Rybak about in and H. And. and M. G Vanner. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of a respiratory organs, M., 1978, bibliogr.; Sokolov Yu. N. and Antonovich V. B. Radiodiagnosis of tumors of a digestive tract, M., 1981, bibliogr.; The reference book on a radiology and radiology, under the editorship of G. A. Zed-genidze, M., 1972; Tag I. L. and Dyachenko V. A. ER. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of a backbone, M., 1971, bibliogr.; F and N and r d I am V. A N. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of a digestive tract, t. 1 — 2, Yerevan, 1961 — 1964; Alimentary tract roentgenology, ed. by A. Margulis a. H. Burhenne, v. 1 — 2, St Louis, 1973; Brombart M. M. Gastrointestinal radiology. Stuttgart, 1980, bibliogr.; Fraser R. G. a. Pare J. A. P. Diagnosis of diseases of the chest, v. 1 — 4, Philadelphia, 1977 — 1979; Handbuch der medizinisehen Radiologie, hrsg. v. L. Diethelm u. a., Bd 1 — 19, B. u. a., 1963 — 1982; Lehrbuch der Ront-gendiagnostik, hrsg. v. H. R. Schinz u. a., Bd 1 — 5, Stuttgart, 1965.
Periodicals — Messenger of a radiology and radiology, L. — M, since 1920; Medical radiology, M., since 1956; The Medical abstract magazine, section 2, M., 1957 — 1959, section 6, M., since 1960; Acta radiologica, Stockholm, since 1921; American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine, Springfield, since 1951 (1906 — 1923 — American Quarterly of Roentgenology, 1924 — 1950 — American Journal of Roentgenology and Radium Therapy); Annales de radiologie, radiologie clinique, radiobiologie, P., since 1964 (1925 — 1963 — Annales de radiologie, 1958 — 1963 — Semame des hopitaux de Paris); British Journal of Radiology, L., since 1896; Ceskoslovenska radiologie, Praha, since 1964 (1946 — 1963 — Ceskoslovens-k£ rentgenologie); Excerpta medica, Section 14 — Radiology, Amsterdam, since 1947; Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgen-strahlen und der Nuklearmedizin, Stuttgart, since 1897; Indian Journal of Radiology, Madras, since 1947; Journal beige de radiologie, Bruxelles, since 1907; Journal de radiologie, d’ electrologie et de medecine nucleaire, P., since 1913; Magyar radiologia, Budapest, since 1949; Polski Przeglad Radiologii i Me-dycyny Nuclearnej, Warszawa, since 1961 (1926 — 1959 — Polski Przeglad Radiolo-giczny); Radiologe, B. u. a., since 1961; Radiologia, Bucuresti, since 1956: Radiologia cli-nica, Basel, since 1932; Radiologia diagnostica, V., since 1960; Radiologia medica, Torino, since 1914; Radiology, Syracuse, since 1923; Strah-lentherapie, V., since 1912; Zentralblatt fur die gesamte RadioLogie, V., since 1929
L. D. Lindenbraten.