RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT — set of special technical devices for protection of personnel during the carrying out technological operations or medical procedures with use of sources of ionizing radiation. River z. - thus it is intended for equipment of radiological departments and laboratories to lay down. - professional, the institutions using sources of ionizing radiation for treatment (see. Gamma therapy , Radiation therapy ) and diagnoses (see. Radio isotope diagnosis , Radio isotope diagnostic units , Radiometry ).
Use of methods of radiation therapy and radio isotope diagnosis is connected with potential danger of radiation of service personnel (see. Radiation safety) also demands implementation of its protection. In to lay down. - professional, institutions deliver sources of ionizing radiation in transport containers from which they are removed, place in storages and as required send to workrooms for preparation, processing and use.
River z. - thus it is presented by devices for work with the closed and open sources of ionizing radiation in radiological departments during the performing treatment and the equipment for laboratories of radio isotope diagnosis. Protective elements in them are lead, steel, the leaded glass. All manipulations with sources of ionizing radiation are carried out by means of special tools (see. Radiological tools) or remotely-controlled devices which sometimes call remote tools.
The equipment for work with the closed sources of ionizing radiation includes: 1. Protective safes — one - and the multisection cases of the carousel which are built in walls and penalyyugo types for storage in them of sources of radiation or working containers with them. 2. Depot storage — a special compartment for storage of working containers with sources of radiation. In it the equipment (fig. 1) intended for mechanization of operations of loading and unloading of containers is mounted. Transportation of containers from one workroom in another is carried out on the semi-automatic transport line. 3. A set from 33 working containers for separate storage of the closed sources of radiation — radioactive cobalt needles, applicators and combined models with sources. 4. A radio handling table for assembly and disassembly of drugs with sources of radiation using remote tools. 5. Installation for disinfection of the closed sources of radiation (fig. 2), for assembly and disinfection of drugs with sources of radiation using chemical solutions or boiling in water. 6. Installation for a sink of the closed sources of radiation (fig. 3), disassemblies, sortings and sinks of the used drugs with sources of radiation. Sink is carried out in the special washing device using soap powders («Lotus», etc.), solution of hydrogen peroxide, and rinsing and washout of foam — by means of the built-in shower. 7. Handling installation with the transport device (fig. 4) for automation and mechanization of a complex of works with the closed sources of radiation (storages, preparation, processing, their receiving and delivery). Installation is built in the partition dividing the handling placement on a sterile zone (zone «A») and pure (zone «B») where the sink, disinfection, dismantling and laying of the used sources of radiation in nests of sections of the main safe is made. 8. The device for transportation and delivery of the closed sources of radiation to the operating room, considerably remote from the handling block. Consists of pneumomail and the rotary conveyor (fig. 5). Sources of radiation are delivered in a special cartridge (fig. 6). 9. A mobile protective container (fig. 7) for transportation of sources of radiation in procedural and radiological chambers. 10. The protective radiotherapeutic screens for gynecology departments (fig. 8) intended for protection of personnel against ionizing radiation during the carrying out ginekol. laying. 11. A radiological universal chair-bed (fig. 9) for carrying out a X-ray analysis, procedures by means of the closed sources of radiation and transportation of patients during passing of a session of radiation. By means of mechanical or electrohydraulic drives the chair-bed will be transformed to a bed, a bed wheelchair, ginekol. a chair and a therapy table with the lifting panel. 12. The protective equipment with screens for protection of personnel against radiation during the performing interstitial radiation therapy and radio surgical introductions of sources of radiation (fig. 10). Screens are mobile, the provision of screens on height is regulated by a hydraulic actuator. 13. Protective ward screens stationary (fig. 11) and mobile (fig. 12) provide protection of personnel against ionizing radiation at service of patients with the entered sources of radiation.
The equipment for work with open sources of ionizing radiation in many respects similarly described above (depot storage, protective screens, etc.). The following devices belong to the special equipment: 1. A protective radio handling table for set in protective syringes (capacity 2, 5, 10, 20 ml) liquid radioactive drugs. The air which is let out from the syringe together with the aerosol which is formed at the same time is sucked away by the vacuum cleaner through a filter funnel. 2. The radio handling pressurized camera for preparation and packaging of liquid radioactive drugs. In it there are devices for an intake of solutions in pipettes by means of vacuum, an ampuloderzhatel, the forkamera-carriage. with nests for working containers, the device for deactivation of effluent, shpatovy manipulators. 3. A radiological handling remasonry table for opening of tight packagings, napr, cans in which transport containers with sources of radiation, for a turn from these containers of bottles with sources of radiation come to screw inserts and their installations in working containers.
The equipment for laboratories of radio isotope diagnosis includes: 1. Special installation for reception, storages and distributions of open radioisotopes (fig. 13). In it are available the main safe for storage of bottles with isotopes in working containers and two operational safes in the camera counted on temporary storage of a day stock of open radioactive sources. Transportation of containers with sources is carried out in transport boxes. 2. Installation for work with generators of short-lived isotopes (fig. 14) for reception and storage of generators, receiving eluate, preparation of radioactive drugs, set them in syringes (capacity of 2, 5, 10 and 20 ml) and transfer in individual boxes to procedural. 3. The cart with the device for opening and extraction of containers from transport tight packaging (fig. 15). Operations on a clip of packaging, cutting its bottom and extraction of a container are mechanized. Waste disposal (a tin cover, etc.) and transfer of a container are carried out manually by means of tools. 4. A portable container for transfer of syringes with radioisotopes (fig. 16), the organizations of jobs for preparation of syringes and to carrying out intravenous administrations in procedural and functional offices.
Bibliography: Bogoudinov R. D., Lavrentyev A. I. ivashchen-to about O. G. Protective and technological devices for the block of radiological chambers, the Medical technician, No. 4, page 58, 1973; B about about at-d and N about in R. D., etc. Radiation protection of medical personnel in radio surgical operating rooms, in the same place, No. 3, page 6, 1970; V. Ya. Brooms ikoren-to about in I. P. Radiation protection during the use of ionizing radiation, M., 1975; Korenkov. The item of ikiri-l about in V. F. Methods of definition of radioactive materials in air, M., 1978; M and-ke (1apg And. Beam loading and efficiency of some protection devices at a contact therapy, Radiobiology, Radiotheraphy, t. 12, page 407, 1971; Standards of radiation safety of NRB-76, M., 1978; Ground health regulations of work with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation of OSP-72, M., 1973.
R. D. Bogoudinov.