RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTIVE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT — set of special technical devices for protection of personnel during the carrying out technological operations or medical procedures with use of sources of ionizing radiation. River z. - thus it is intended for equipment of radiological departments and laboratories to lay down. - professional, the institutions using sources of ionizing radiation for treatment (see. Gamma therapy , Radiation therapy ) and diagnoses (see. Radio isotope diagnosis , Radio isotope diagnostic units , Radiometry ).

Use of methods of radiation therapy and radio isotope diagnosis is connected with potential danger of radiation of service personnel (see. Radiation safety) also demands implementation of its protection. In to lay down. - professional, institutions deliver sources of ionizing radiation in transport containers from which they are removed, place in storages and as required send to workrooms for preparation, processing and use.

River z. - thus it is presented by devices for work with the closed and open sources of ionizing radiation in radiological departments during the performing treatment and the equipment for laboratories of radio isotope diagnosis. Protective elements in them are lead, steel, the leaded glass. All manipulations with sources of ionizing radiation are carried out by means of special tools (see. Radiological tools) or remotely-controlled devices which sometimes call remote tools.

Fig. 1. The equipment for depot storage of working containers with sources of ionizing radiation: 1 — a cable of power supply; 2 — the electric drive; 3 — the crane with the mechanism of rise and lowering of a working container; 4 — a mirror for observation; 5 — a hand gear; 6 — - the operating console; 7 — the pallet for containers.
Fig. 2. Installation for disinfection of the closed sources of ionizing radiation: 1 — a protecting screen with the leaded glass; 2 — a box for placement of working glasses and remote tools; 3 — the built-in electrocase; 4 — a table-top with protective blocks and a makhovichok for movement of a cover of the camera; 5 — the camera for disinfection of drugs chemical solutions; 6 — the operating console with an alarm system; 7 — the luminescent lamp.
Fig. 3. Installation for a sink of the closed sources of ionizing radiation: 1 — the washing device with a protective cover; 2 — a nest for temporary storage of sources of ionizing radiation; 3 — the operating console; 4 — cranes for supply of cold and hot water: 5 — the handle of the crane for discharge of solutions from the washing device; 6 — an electrocase; 7 — - a box for remote tools; 8 — a table-top with protective blocks; 9 — a protecting screen with the leaded glass; 10 — the luminescent lamp.
Fig. 4. Handling installation with the transport device: 1 — makhovichka for promotion and rotation of sections of the main safe; 2 — the shpagovy manipulator; 3 — a wall of installation with a door of a case; 4 — the operating console by pneumomail; 5 — a mirror for the review of a surface of a desktop; 6 — the operating console the operational safe; 7 — a protective screen with the screen; 8 — a working protective table with the main safe for storage of the disclosed sources of ionizing radiation and drugs.
Fig. 5. The reception and dispatch station of pneumomail with the conveyor in the operating room: 1 — the device of a tormosheniye of the arriving boss with radioactive sources; 2 — the operating console by pneumomail; 3 — the protective block; 4 — the operating console the conveyor; 5 — a protective cover of a container; 6 — a working container; 7 — a hand gear of the conveyor; 8 — the electromechanical drive of the conveyor; 9 — the mechanism for renting and putting on of a protective cover of a container.
Fig. 6. Cartridge of pneumomail for transportation of sources of ionizing radiation to the operating room: 1 — a cover of the boss; 2 — the case of the boss; 3 — a working glass for sources of ionizing radiation; 4 — a cover of a glass.
Fig. 7. Mobile protective container: 1 — the cart with a brake stopper; 2 — a protective container; 3 — a protective cover; 4 — wear bushing for placement of sources of ionizing radiation on ropes.
Fig. 8. Screens protective radiotherapeutic for gynecology departments: 1 — the horizontal protective block on a rack; 2 — a tray for waste; 3 — a tray for sterile materials; 4 — the lamp; 5 — a screen for the sister assistant; 6 — a screen for the doctor-radiologist; 7 — the leaded glass; 8 — a screen for the sister.
Fig. 9. Radiological universal chair-bed: 1 — a frame with wheels and the lock mechanism; 2 — a nest for installation of a support with a kassetoderzhatel; 3 — the handle for rise and fixing of a head restraint: 4 — a section mattress.
Fig. 10. The equipment protective for radio surgery: 1 — a screen mobile for the instrument nurse, 2 — a screen rotary for an anesthetist, 3 — a screen for the assistant, 4 — the leaded glass, 5 — a screen for the surgeon, 6 — the operating table, 7 — pedals for regulation of provision of a screen on height.
Fig. 11. Screens are protective ward stationary: and — a screen with a hospital bed on wheels — a screen with a radiological universal chair-bed; 1 — a face two-fold protecting screen, 2 — the receiver of the vessel, 3 — a side protecting screen with the leaded glass, 4 — a little table for drugs.
Fig. 12. The screen is protective ward mobile: 1 — the receiver for the vessel, 2 — a dining table, 3 — a little table for drugs. 4. A container collection for temporary storage of solid radioactive waste. 5. Dvukhgnezdny carts for transportation of working containers. 6. Special protective carts for the transportation of ware, the tool and linen contaminated by open sources of radiation.

The equipment for work with the closed sources of ionizing radiation includes: 1. Protective safes — one - and the multisection cases of the carousel which are built in walls and penalyyugo types for storage in them of sources of radiation or working containers with them. 2. Depot storage — a special compartment for storage of working containers with sources of radiation. In it the equipment (fig. 1) intended for mechanization of operations of loading and unloading of containers is mounted. Transportation of containers from one workroom in another is carried out on the semi-automatic transport line. 3. A set from 33 working containers for separate storage of the closed sources of radiation — radioactive cobalt needles, applicators and combined models with sources. 4. A radio handling table for assembly and disassembly of drugs with sources of radiation using remote tools. 5. Installation for disinfection of the closed sources of radiation (fig. 2), for assembly and disinfection of drugs with sources of radiation using chemical solutions or boiling in water. 6. Installation for a sink of the closed sources of radiation (fig. 3), disassemblies, sortings and sinks of the used drugs with sources of radiation. Sink is carried out in the special washing device using soap powders («Lotus», etc.), solution of hydrogen peroxide, and rinsing and washout of foam — by means of the built-in shower. 7. Handling installation with the transport device (fig. 4) for automation and mechanization of a complex of works with the closed sources of radiation (storages, preparation, processing, their receiving and delivery). Installation is built in the partition dividing the handling placement on a sterile zone (zone «A») and pure (zone «B») where the sink, disinfection, dismantling and laying of the used sources of radiation in nests of sections of the main safe is made. 8. The device for transportation and delivery of the closed sources of radiation to the operating room, considerably remote from the handling block. Consists of pneumomail and the rotary conveyor (fig. 5). Sources of radiation are delivered in a special cartridge (fig. 6). 9. A mobile protective container (fig. 7) for transportation of sources of radiation in procedural and radiological chambers. 10. The protective radiotherapeutic screens for gynecology departments (fig. 8) intended for protection of personnel against ionizing radiation during the carrying out ginekol. laying. 11. A radiological universal chair-bed (fig. 9) for carrying out a X-ray analysis, procedures by means of the closed sources of radiation and transportation of patients during passing of a session of radiation. By means of mechanical or electrohydraulic drives the chair-bed will be transformed to a bed, a bed wheelchair, ginekol. a chair and a therapy table with the lifting panel. 12. The protective equipment with screens for protection of personnel against radiation during the performing interstitial radiation therapy and radio surgical introductions of sources of radiation (fig. 10). Screens are mobile, the provision of screens on height is regulated by a hydraulic actuator. 13. Protective ward screens stationary (fig. 11) and mobile (fig. 12) provide protection of personnel against ionizing radiation at service of patients with the entered sources of radiation.

The equipment for work with open sources of ionizing radiation in many respects similarly described above (depot storage, protective screens, etc.). The following devices belong to the special equipment: 1. A protective radio handling table for set in protective syringes (capacity 2, 5, 10, 20 ml) liquid radioactive drugs. The air which is let out from the syringe together with the aerosol which is formed at the same time is sucked away by the vacuum cleaner through a filter funnel. 2. The radio handling pressurized camera for preparation and packaging of liquid radioactive drugs. In it there are devices for an intake of solutions in pipettes by means of vacuum, an ampuloderzhatel, the forkamera-carriage. with nests for working containers, the device for deactivation of effluent, shpatovy manipulators. 3. A radiological handling remasonry table for opening of tight packagings, napr, cans in which transport containers with sources of radiation, for a turn from these containers of bottles with sources of radiation come to screw inserts and their installations in working containers.

Fig. 13. Storage bin and distributions of open radioisotopes: 1 — the camera for loading of working containers, 2 — the refrigerator with system of thawing and air circulation, 3 — the operating console installation, 4 — the screen with the leaded glass, 5 — the transport device, 6 — the distributing device with the panel, 7 — the built-in electrocase, 8 — a flywheel for rotation of a roundabout of storage and promotion of working containers, 9 — a hand gear of the conveyor, 10 — a bracket for placement of the working remote tool, 11 — a forkamer with the operating console the conveyor.
Fig. 14. Installation for work with generators of short-lived isotopes: 1 — the distributing device, 2 — makhovichka of manual control by the manipulator, 3 — the control unit with the pumping device, the manipulator and the watching system, 4 — the operating console with the timing unit, 5 — the camera with executive mechanisms, 6 — an electrocase, 7 — a forkamer with the operating console of the conveyor, 8 — the electromechanical drive of the conveyor, 9 — the transport device.
Fig. 15. The cart with the device for opening and extraction of containers from transport hermetic packaging: 1 — a protective cover with an opening for extraction of a container, 2 — the case in which the block of opening of packaging is placed, 3 — a pedal of management of a hydraulic system, 4 — the basis of the cart with a brake stopper.
Fig. 16. A container figurative for syringes with radioisotopes: 1 — the device for crossclamping of a vein of a hand of the patient, 2 — a tray for a hand of the patient, 3 — a box for syringes with radioisotopes, 4 — a box for the used syringes and radioactive waste, 5 — the case of a container with side doors, 6 — the rotary removed screen.

The equipment for laboratories of radio isotope diagnosis includes: 1. Special installation for reception, storages and distributions of open radioisotopes (fig. 13). In it are available the main safe for storage of bottles with isotopes in working containers and two operational safes in the camera counted on temporary storage of a day stock of open radioactive sources. Transportation of containers with sources is carried out in transport boxes. 2. Installation for work with generators of short-lived isotopes (fig. 14) for reception and storage of generators, receiving eluate, preparation of radioactive drugs, set them in syringes (capacity of 2, 5, 10 and 20 ml) and transfer in individual boxes to procedural. 3. The cart with the device for opening and extraction of containers from transport tight packaging (fig. 15). Operations on a clip of packaging, cutting its bottom and extraction of a container are mechanized. Waste disposal (a tin cover, etc.) and transfer of a container are carried out manually by means of tools. 4. A portable container for transfer of syringes with radioisotopes (fig. 16), the organizations of jobs for preparation of syringes and to carrying out intravenous administrations in procedural and functional offices.

See also Hood , boxes for work with radioactive materials, Antiactinic protection .


Bibliography: Bogoudinov R. D., Lavrentyev A. I. ivashchen-to about O. G. Protective and technological devices for the block of radiological chambers, the Medical technician, No. 4, page 58, 1973; B about about at-d and N about in R. D., etc. Radiation protection of medical personnel in radio surgical operating rooms, in the same place, No. 3, page 6, 1970; V. Ya. Brooms ikoren-to about in I. P. Radiation protection during the use of ionizing radiation, M., 1975; Korenkov. The item of ikiri-l about in V. F. Methods of definition of radioactive materials in air, M., 1978; M and-ke (1apg And. Beam loading and efficiency of some protection devices at a contact therapy, Radiobiology, Radiotheraphy, t. 12, page 407, 1971; Standards of radiation safety of NRB-76, M., 1978; Ground health regulations of work with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation of OSP-72, M., 1973.

R. D. Bogoudinov.

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