From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RADIOANATOMY [rentgeno-(on a name B. X-ray) + anatomy] — the section of a radiology and anatomy studying a structure of an organism, a form and a structure of its separate bodies by means of x-ray emission.

The river originally arose as the independent section anatomy (see), but thanks to big a wedge, became value of anatomic data a basis radiodiagnosis (see). According to it modern R. consists of two interconnected sections: descriptive and clinical River. Descriptive R. is studied preferential by anatomists. Clinical R. is a part of radiodiagnosis and the wedge, medicine is developed by radiologists, and also representatives of other areas.

Descriptive R. arose soon after opening x-ray emission (see). In Russia in 1896 N. Tonkov reported about a research of skeleton structure by means of a X-ray analysis. Domestic anatomists — V. N. Vikhrev (1897), P. I. Dyakonov (1897), P. F. Lesgaft (1897), etc. — with success applied rentgenol. a method for studying of bone and vascular systems. A big role in R.'s development the special laboratory for a research of anthropotomy and animals with use of x-ray emission created in 1918 in Central radiological, radiological and cancer played in-those in Petrograd. The researches on comparative R. of animals executed in this laboratory and the person promoted studying of a number of questions filo-and ontogenesis of bone system. M. G. Prives with sotr., using rentgenol. by method, determined consistent patterns of intraorganic blood circulation of vertebrata. W. N. Ton-kov, B. A. Long Saburov with sotr. applied rentgenol. a method for a research of collateral circulation, and V. N. Shevkunenko and his pupils — for a research of venous system. A.S. Zolotukhin and D. A. Zhdanov possess a priority in use indirect limfografiya (see) for studying of a structure limf. systems.

Fundamental works on clinical R. of the bone and joint device were published by D. G. Rokhlin and V. S. Maykova-Stroganova (1952, 1955, 1957). The big role in R.'s studying of bone system was played by V. A. Dyachenko, G. A. Zedgenidze, G. Yu. Blacksmith, N. S. Kosinskaya, S. A. Reynberg, M. of X. Fayzulin, R. Grashey, A. Köhler, A. A. Schtiller, etc. D. S. Lindenbraten and L. D. Lindenbraten, N. A. Panov, L. S. Rozenshtraukh, Yu. N. Sokolov, V. Ya. Fridkin, B. K. Sharov, H. Assmann, G. Goljtsknekht, F. Kovats and Z. Zsebok, S. Rienzo's works, etc. were important for clinical R. of respiratory system. Clinical R. of cardiovascular system was developed by V. V. Zodi-ev, M. A. Ivanitskaya, E. L. Kevesh, P. N. Mazayev, E. N. Meshalkin, And. X. Rabkin, A. F. Tsyb, Abrams (N. Abrams), A. Vakez and Borde (E. Bordet), A. Köhler, Gredel (F. M of Groedel), etc. The significant contribution to development of system of digestion by clinical R. was made by N. M. Bezchinskaya, P. V. Vlasov, G. A. Zedgenidze, E. M. Kagan, JI. D. Lindenbraten, Yu. N. Sokolov, I. G. Shlifer, H. Anacker, Berg (N. Berg), A. Akerlund, Y. Forssell, H. Cha-oul, etc.

Thanks to works of the Soviet and foreign radiologists and morphologists extensive X-ray anatomic material is saved up. The normal structure of all bodies in the x-ray image is studied, numerous options and anomalies of development are described, age structural changes of bodies are established. It is in details considered morfol. variability of bodies in connection with action on the person of various external factors (feature of a profession, long occupations nek-ry sports, etc.).

Rentgenol. the method allows to study bodies and systems of the living person as a part of a complete organism in its diverse bonds with the environment, to investigate intravital interposition of bodies, their form, size, structure, sexual, constitutional and individual distinctions. The river opens both an inborn anatomic basis of an organism, and the acquired anatomo-functional features of bodies and systems, plays an important role in knowledge of the general patterns of development and aging of bodies, in studying of their morphological options and anomalies, in particular those, to-rye are not followed by the expressed disturbance of functions of bodies and the general condition of an organism. Rentgenol. the method gives the chance to study a structure of bodies in the conditions of their activity, i.e. promotes development of functional anatomy.

In the USSR the beginning of teaching R. at medical institutes is connected with a name M. Additional weight (1932). R.'s studying begins at departments of anatomy and continues at departments of a radiology and radiology. In fuller volume clinical R. is stated in in-ta of improvement of doctors on courses of specialization and improvement of radiologists. In 1946 in Leningrad the All-Union conference on R. — the first-ever scientific conference of this sort was held.

Scientific and technical progress in area of a radiology opens new perspectives in R. Rentgenotelevideniye's development with the video magnetic record (see. Television in medicine ), X-ray cinematography (see) allow to investigate bodies taking into account communication of their form and function, studying of biomechanics of joints can be an example of what. Methods microx-ray analysis (see) and microangiography (see) were very valuable to studying of a microstructure of bodies and fabrics. Modern angiographic methods (see. Angiography ) give the chance to investigate any circulatory and limf, vessels in the conditions of the kept hemodynamics. Use of long-wave x-ray emission and electrox-ray analysis (see) opened a way to intravital studying of a structure of mammary glands, muscles and sheaves, cavities of joints in the conditions of a normal tone of fabrics and functioning of bodies. Wide perspectives for an intravital research of topografo-anatomic relationship of bodies and fabrics open in connection with use of a computer tomography (see. Tomography computer ).

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L. D. Lindenbraten.