RADIATION SAFETY — complex of evidence-based actions for ensuring protection against impact of ionizing radiation. It includes development of criteria according to danger of ionizing radiation to separate groups of people, and also population in general and natural objects of the environment; ways and methods of assessment of a radiation situation, its control and forecasting; the design, technical, medical and sanitary and organizational actions providing safe conditions of use of ionizing radiation in the field of human activity. River. uses achievements in the field of nuclear physics (see), dosimetry of ionizing radiation (see), a physics health (see), radiobiologies (see), etc.
Formation and R.'s formation. it is connected with creation of the atomic industry (see) and development of nuclear power though its separate aspects were developed and earlier, practically soon after opening of x-ray emission (see) and the phenomena of radioactivity (see) . In the USSR the highly effective system P. is also abroad created.
Development of criteria for assessment of danger of different types of ionizing radiation would be one of the main problems of R. It is solved on the basis of the analysis of a complex of radio biological data on action of ionizing radiation on a live organism and its separate systems. The most essential in this question is establishment of quantitative communication between the level of radiation and that effect which causes ionizing radiation. Establishment of system of sizes for assessment of level of radiation and development of methods of their measurement means at various ways of influence. As such parameter characterizing expressiveness of effect the equivalent exposure dose is used (see. Doses of ionizing radiation ). On the basis of the established criteria of danger the system of acceptance limits of impact of ionizing radiation is developed (see. Marginal dose of radiation ), the «Standards of radiation safety» issued in the form of legislative documents, in particular.
During the development of methods of assessment and forecasting of a radiation situation study characteristics of sources of ionizing radiation, change of its levels at various stages of a techno of l. process and jobs and depending on conditions of use of sources of radiation and duties of personnel, pattern of distribution of radioactive materials, character and scales of their impact on personnel, population and objects of the environment under normal conditions works and at emergence of emergencies. These data are necessary for the reasonable choice of means and methods of individual and group protection (see. Antiactinic protection ), optimum modes of work, sanitary access control and other actions for protection against ionizing radiation.
For implementation of necessary actions for protection against impact of ionizing radiation it is necessary to have objective and exhaustive information about a radiation situation. Therefore one of the major questions is development of the system of radiation (dosimetric) control. Establishment of parameters of a radiation situation which are subject to control under various conditions of use of radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation, justification and the choice of methods and points of control within production rooms and in the adjacent territory, and also establishment of its frequency means. In particular, at operation of gamma and therapeutic or defektoskopichesky installations where the closed sources of ionizing radiation are used, it is enough to be limited to control of dosage rate of gamma radiation (or doses of neutron emission during the works with sources of neutrons) in workrooms. During the receiving radioactive materials, processing of radioactive waste, operation of the nuclear reactor and performance of the repair work connected with open radioactive sources control not only levels of gamma and neutron emission, but also concentration of radioactive gases and aerosols shall be exercised, to be measured the level of pollution by radioactive materials of surfaces in workrooms, clothes, footwear and skin of the personnel working in them, to be estimated sizes of possible intake of radioactive materials in an organism. If under the terms of work of the enterprise or establishment intake of radioactive materials to the environment is possible, then systematic radiation control of level of radiocontamination of free air, water, the soil and vegetation is necessary (see. Radiation control ). Essential part of radiation control is individual radiation control, on the basis to-rogo judge the level of radiation of each worker and take timely measures for the prevention of radiation in the doses exceeding admissible.
R.'s providing. it is carried out by a complex of design, technical, sanitary and hygienic and organizational actions which are directed to the solution of two main objectives: decrease in level of radiation of personnel and population to the regulated limits and creation effektiv ache systems of radiation control, edges would allow to register quickly changes of various parameters of a radiation situation on the basis of what it is possible to judge levels of radiation of personnel and radiocontamination of objects of the environment and in case of exceeding of tolerance levels to take measures for their normalization. Creation of mobile or stationary spiders, tight boxes and devices for work with open radioactive materials, automation and mechanization of a techno of l belongs to technical actions. processes, carrying out them on a closed circuit, purification of air of radioactive materials, etc. Medical dignity. - a gigabyte. actions include the organization of sanitary access control, establishment of the list of means of individual and group protection, control of the state of health of personnel taking into account the nature of radiative effects, etc. Establishment of sanitary protection zones, and also corresponding modes of work in the conditions of the increased levels of ionizing radiation excluding exceeding of admissible exposure doses is among organizational actions.
The actions directed to decrease in level of radiation and volume of radiation control depend on type and purpose of a source of ionizing radiation and the nature of its use. At the same time it must be kept in mind that optimization of a complex of the funds allocated for decrease in levels of radiative effects would be one of the major problems of R.
See also Accident prevention .
Bibliography: Atomic science and technology in the USSR, under the editorship of I. D. Morokhov, etc., M., 1977; Brooms V. Ya. and Coren-to about in I. P. Radiation protection during the use of ionizing radiation, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Goats V. F. and Troshkin Yu. S. Reference book on radiation safety, M., 1967; Margulies U. Ya. Radiation and protection, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Moiseyev A. A. and Ivanov V. I. Reference book on dosimetry and physics health, M., 1974; Standards of radiation safety of NRB-76, M., 1978; Radiation safety in nuclear power, under the editorship of A. I. Burnazyan, M., 1981, bibliogr.; Radiation protection, Recommendations of MKRZ, the Publication No. 26, the lane with English, M., 1978; Nuclear power, the person and the environment, under the editorship of A. P. Alexandrov, M., 1981.
U. Ya. Margulies.