RACES — the human groups allocated on the basis of historically arisen community hereditarily of the caused biological signs. Racial types differ in historical (phylogenetic) character of the origin from the constitutional, developing in the course of ontogenesis thanks to biological interrelation signs. The racial type, unlike constitutional, represents not system, but a mosaic of the signs which arose at different times in different territories. The same signs can enter both in constitutional, and racial type; these types differ not so much with separate signs, how many the nature of correlations between them. Constitutional correlations are shown at the intra group (individual) level, racial correlations — only on intergroup. Attempts to ignore this distinction and to carry individuals in homogeneous groups to different racial types (the typological concept of race) are absolutely unreasonable.
All human R. belong to one look (homo sapiens) and approximately correspond to zoological subspecies though, unlike the last, have no formal status and Latin designations. R.'s specifics of the person in comparison with subspecies of animals are caused by existence of the social factors influencing a rasoobrazovaniye. These factors, first, weaken action natural selection (see), and secondly, break R.'s communication with the territory. Numerous and mass resettlements of people (e.g., Europeans, and then Blacks from Africa) brought into America and lead to gaps and sovmeshcheniye of areas of their dwelling (see. Area ), therefore R.'s mixing happens much more intensively. Social factors can, on the other hand, and detain a metisation, promoting emergence or preservation of anthropological distinctions (for example, as a result of action of exclusive system in India). However usually social barriers are insufficiently effective: the metisation occurs at contact even of very far R. that confirms specific unity of mankind.
A systematics of intraspecific forms as in zoology (see), and in anthropology (see) it is considerably conditional and any. Racial classifications were based usually on the basis of external physical features — skin colors, shapes of hair, development of tertiary indumentum, a structure of the person. The combination of these signs allows to differentiate most accurately three large complexes designated in different schemes as big R. or trunks: Caucasian, Mongoloid and equatorial (negro-Australoid).
Caucasians have a skin rather light, hair wavy or direct, soft, tertiary indumentum is developed strongly, cheekbones act poorly, jaws are located vertically (ortognatizm), a nose narrow, convex, lips rather thin, epikantus (the Mongolian fold of a century) meets seldom. Mongoloids have a skin rather light, a rigid straight hair, tertiary indumentum is developed poorly, cheekbones act strongly, jaws are located vertically or slabonaklonno (orto-and a mezognatizm), a nose narrow or sredneshiroky, flat, lips of average thickness, epikantus is usually expressed. The equatorial R.'s representatives have a skin usually dark, hair curly or wavy, tertiary indumentum is developed usually poorly, cheekbones act so-so, jaws are given (prognathism), a nose wide, flat forward, full lips, epikantus meets seldom.
Racial diagnosis is at a loss the fact that in many groups and furthermore at separate individuals, the combination of differentiating features is contradictory.
The three-membered scheme of racial division admits not all researchers. Disagreements arise first of all at assessment of the status of the equatorial groups. It agrees one of the points of view, curly-haired populations of Africa, southern and Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Tasmania shall be opposed to volnistovolosy groups (to Australians, vedda, etc.). The theory, on a cut the African Negroids, despite external similarity is more widespread, are not related to Melanesians, Australians, tasmaniyets and aziatsshsh to the equatorial R.'s representatives; the general signs were acquired most likely independently, in the course of adaptation to conditions of a tropical belt.
Nek-ry anthropologists increase number of the main racial divisions to five. As special group allocate, for example, the American Indians (to-rye, according to the prevailing opinion, treat Mongoloid R.); others consider that the originality of the Bushmen included usually in negroid group is enough for their allocation in special subspecies. There are even more fractional classification schemes. In each scheme the main R. on the basis of such signs as color of eyes and hair, length of a body, a shape of a cranium, etc., are subdivided into smaller units.
Except the main R. and their divisions, exists many groups which are intermediate between R. or owing to preservation of physical features of the ancient tribes living before modern R.' emergence or owing to a metisation. So, the people, racial type live in Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan and in the considerable territory of Central Asia to-rykh it developed as a result of mixing of the most ancient Caucasian population of these areas with the Mongoloids who got here from Central Asia. Also racial type of the population of northwest Siberia and adjacent zone of the extreme East of Europe is anthropologically intermediate, however in this area not only mixing of Caucasians with Mongoloids, but also preservation of lines of ancient slabodifferentsirovanny complexes could be the cause.
The set of the caused biological features of a human body new hereditarily finding intergroup is studied variability (see). These are first of all signs with simple hereditary structure: polymorphic systems of blood, nek-ry physiological indicators (ability to feel taste of phenyl thiourea, anomaly of color sensation, a consistence of an earwax, etc.). Each of such signs has a special picture of geographical distribution, however, if to consider all these signs totally, then Caucasian groups usually combine with African, and Mongoloid — with Australian and Oceanic. Such division of mankind into the western and east half finds support from nek-ry odontolog (specialists in variations of tooth system). At the same time others odontology are inclined to oppose Mongoloids to all other human groups. According to a dermatoglyphics (science about skin patterns of a brush), Negroids of Africa are most peculiar concerning these patterns.
Nek-ry researchers consider that modern Rubles. The Old World came from local R. of Neanderthal men (polycentrism). Other researchers deny such succession and carry the beginning of modern racial differentiation to an era not earlier than an upper paleolith (monocentrism). The main factor of a rasoobrazovaniye was, undoubtedly, adaptation of groups to various conditions of the environment by natural selection. Certificates of an adaptive role of the sizes and the forms of a body, a structure of a cranium and person, skin color and other racial features are had. As manifestation of adaptation serves, in particular, the fact that at the person, as well as at nek-ry animals, geographical variability of a number of signs submits to so-called climatic rules: in southern latitudes the relation of a body surface to weight is more, than in northern (Bergman and Allen's rules), pigmentation is more dark (Gloger's rule). Serological differentiation also happened with the participation of natural selection (people with different blood groups are unequally subject to various infections). Other rasoobrazuyushchy factor — gene drift (random changes of frequencies of genes at digenesis) — plays that a large role, than it is less population of people by the sizes and than isolation between them is stronger. In cases, when gene drift (see. Population genetics ) was the main reason for inter-group differentiation, the total size of distinctions in frequencies of many genes (see. Gene ) can serve as a criterion of prescription of discrepancy. The factor of accident in a rasoob-razovaniye was shown also in the so-called principle of the founder: colonization of the territory by little groups of people, communication between to-rymi is interrupted, leads to fixing of accidental distinctions in gene frequencies.
Modern methods of a rasovedeniye are divided into two categories. The first category of methods is connected with a problem of genealogical classification; as the main object of studying serves the racial type of population, i.e. a complex of anthropological features here. One anthropologists at the same time aim to use first of all the ancient, stable and presumably lost adaptive value signs, considering that the is more ancient a sign, the higher it a taxonomical rank (a kladistichesky method); other anthropologists consider a set of accidentally selected features at the same time, summing up information by means of methods of multivariate statistics (a fenetichesky method). The second category of methods is connected with studying of a biological role of the signs considered not as components of racial types, and separately. Signs are mapped, their temporary dynamics, and also correlation with various factors of the environment, diseases, social and demographic and other indicators are investigated. The more an adaptive role of a sign, the more probable it repeated emergence in the unrelated groups living in similar conditions, and the less it is suitable for reconstruction of family relations of populations. Therefore in process of accumulation of data on biological value of signs anthropologists even more often began to subject to doubts the value of racial classifications and even need of the concept of racial type — more or less randomly the allocated combination of independent signs, each of to-rykh usually has own evolutionary history. It agrees the «Declaration on race and racial prejudices» adopted in 1967 by UNESCO, «many anthropologists, entirely recognizing great value of variability of people, consider that division into „races“ has limited scientific value».
See also Racism .
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A. G. Kozintsev.