PYROGENAL (Pyrogenalum; joint venture. B) — biogenic drug; a lipopolisakharidny complex from cellular covers of gram-negative bacteria.
Light-cream amorphous powder, easily water soluble. Elementary list of P.: With — 37,23%, H - 6,74%, N — 1,27%, P — 5,4%. Activity of drug is defined biol, in the way and expressed in the minimum pyrogenic doses (MPD). For 1 MPD accept amount of drug, a cut at intravenous administration causes fervescence of rabbits on 0,6 °. Standard P.'s MPD — 0,01 mkg/kg.
The item causes fervescence by activation of reticuloendothelial and gipotalamo-pituitary systems. Stimulates the general and specific resistance of an organism, and also has the adjuvant, desensibilizing and antiinflammatory properties. In the mechanism of action of P. its fixing on leukocytes and mastocytes with the subsequent release of lizosomalny enzymes, leukocytic (endogenous) pyrogen, biogenic amines and other biologically active agents matters.
Leukocytic (endogenous) pyrogen, influencing thermosensitive neurons * preoptichesky area of a hypothalamus, promotes fervescence. Other biologically active agents which are emitted under the influence of P. define development of other effects of drug. So, under the influence of lizosomalny enzymes there is an activation of fibrinolitic and kinin systems of blood owing to what permeability of vessels increases, blood supply and an angenesis improves. The antiinflammatory and desensibilizing P.'s action is caused, obviously, by stimulation of pituitary and adrenal system. Increasing permeability of vessels, P. promotes the best penetration of chemotherapeutic substances into the centers of damage.
Item. apply for stimulation of reparative processes after injuries, burns, diseases and defeats of a nervous system, for a rassasyvaniye patol, hems, commissures (e.g., strictures of an urethra), at some inflammatory diseases (prostatitis, an urethritis, an adnexitis, etc.), at opacification of a cornea. Items use also as nonspecific means in therapy of veins. diseases, napr, syphilis.
The drug is administered intramusculary once a day. Injections make every other day or less often (in 2 — 3 days). Doses select individually. Initial doses for adults usually make 25 — 50 MPD, for children — 5 — 15 MPD. The dose which caused temperature increase to 37,5 — 38,0 ° at the subsequent injections repeats until temperature ceases to increase. After that the dose is gradually increased by 25 — 50 MPD. The maximum single dose for adults 1000 MPD, for children — 250 — 300 MPD. Depending on a disease the course of treatment for adults consists of 10 — 30 injections, for children — of 10 — 15 injections. Intervals between courses not less than 2 — 3 months.
At to overdose drug there can be a headache, joint pains and a waist, a fever, nausea, vomiting, sharp fervescence (sometimes to 39,5 — 40 °). These phenomena proceed usually 6 — 8 hours and completely pass.
Item. it is contraindicated at acute feverish diseases and pregnancy. To the persons having a hypertension and diabetes, P. is appointed with care in the reduced doses. To children up to 5 years and to persons 60 years are more senior it is necessary to appoint P. in the reduced doses and to raise them only at good tolerance of drug.
Form of release: the ampoules containing in 1 ml of isotonic solution of sodium chloride 50; 100; 250; 500 or 1000 MPD. Store in the soldered ampoules in the place protected from light at t ° from 2 to 4 °.
See also Biogenic stimulators .
Bibliography: Sorokin A. V. Pyrogens, L., 1965: In of a d 1 at S. G. Cellular and molecular mechanism of action of bacterial endotoxins, Ann. Rev. Microbiol., v. 33, p. 67, 1979.