From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PYKNOLEPSY (Greek pyknos dense, frequent + lepsis hvataniye, attack; synonym piknoepilepsiya) — a form of epilepsy with frequent attacks in the form of absentias epileptica (a short-term loss of consciousness). The term «pyknolepsy» was offered by Zauer (N. of Sauer) in 1916.

The disease usually arises at children aged from 4 up to 10 years with normal psychophysical development, but is quite often raised impressionable and Ekhmotsionalno unstable. The item meets at boys more often. Attacks at P. are shown sudden short-term (from 2 to 30 sec.) by switching off of consciousness and quite often are followed by a motive component in the form of directed back (a retropool of sivny) rhythmic movements of the head and eyeglobes or blink movements a century. The attack also suddenly stops, upon termination of his patient continues that action, a cut was interrupted with this attack. Frequency of attacks fluctuates from 50 to several hundred a day. Changes on EEG at P. are expressed by the peak wave complexes with a frequency of 3 a second, typical for absentias epileptica.

Etiology and pathogeny are not established. In P.'s pathogeny «center-entsefalichesky» localization of the epileptic center plays a role.

Diagnosis establish a wedge on the basis. pictures (existence of frequent small attacks is frequent with a retropulsivny component) and data of EEG. Differential diagnosis is carried out with other forms epilepsies (see), to-rye are characterized by rare absentias epileptica and atypical small attacks (astatic, myoclonic, etc.), with narcolepsy (see), and also with organic diseases of a brain (tumors, hereditary and degenerative diseases, etc.), to-rye can be shown by small attacks.

Treatment carry out by drugs of group of suktsinimid — an Ethosuximidum (Suxilepum, Pyknolepsinum), etc. At difficult absentias epileptica appoint also oksazolidina, in particular Trimethinum.

Along with it apply dehydrational, resorptional therapy and other methods of treatment of epilepsy.

Forecast diseases which was considered before as a favorable it is regarded ambiguously. Approximately in 50% of cases favorable dynamics takes place: attacks gradually become more rare and during the pubertal period disappear, changes of the personality, typical for epilepsy, are not noted. However at other half of patients the adverse current is observed: absentias epileptica are replaced with convulsive attacks over time, changes of the personality on epileptic type join.

Prevention the same, as at epilepsies (see).

Bibliography: Babiyan S. M. To a question of a pyknolepsy, Shurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 60, century 9, page 11 I, 1960, bibliogr.; Kreyndler A., Krigel E. also It is resistant And. Children's epilepsy, the lane from Romanians., page 103, 105, Bucharest, 1963; About are and d and sh in and l and P. M. and of e of l and d-z e T. Highway * Epilepsy, page 132, M., 1977; J a n z D. Die klinische Stellung der Pyknolepsie, Dtsch, med. Wschr., S. 1392, 1955, Bibliogr.; P an a 1 G. Katamnes-tische Untersuchungen und EE G bei Pyknolepsie, Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., Bd 196, S. 48, 1957, Bibliogr.

V. V. Kovalyov.