PEAK-TsII — the behavioural acts of the person and animals directed to satisfaction dominating biological and social (for the person) or only biological (for an animal) requirements and coming to an end useful adaptive for the individual or community with result.
K. V. Sudakov (1984) allocates four groups of useful adaptive results of purposeful reactions. The first group is made by internal constants of an organism, the interconnected homeostatic indicators defining his normal metabolism (see the Homeostasis). Such indicators are contents in an organism of nutrients (see the Metabolism and energy), water and electrolytes (see the Water salt metabolism), the level of blood pressure (see), temperatures (see Thermal control), etc. The second group is made by the results of active relationship of an organism with the environment directed to satisfaction internal biol. requirements and on preservation of a look. To number of such useful results of C. rubles belong finding of food hungry animals or avoiding of danger by them (see. Defense reactions of an organism), reproductive activity, etc. The third group is made by the results of group activity of animals and the person directed to satisfaction them biol. requirements. The fourth group is made by results of social activity of the person.
Role of C. the river in life activity of animals is big since without them adaptation of live organisms to the environment is impossible (see Adaptation).
A certain difficulty in studying of C. the river is presented by a problem
the GEE'S DISEASE of 151
«purposes». Also. P. Pavlov made an attempt to open process of formation of «purpose» from positions of the reflex theory (see).
Studying of a question of the mechanisms providing statement of the purpose is carried out from various positions. In particular, their studying is carried out from a position of the classical reflex theory (E. A. Asratyan's works and sotr.). Ethology, studying behavioral genetics, the main attention is paid to inborn mechanisms C. river; supporters of ecological approach assign a crucial role to the environment in formation of C. river. About influence on formation of C. river of both internal factors, and the external environment surrounding an organism behaviourists speak (see the Behaviourism).
The nature of decision-making, formation of the purpose of behavior are considered from the point of view of psychological theories — 1) psychophysical and informative; 2) cognitive and «target». Achievements of experimental psychology (see) promoted development of ideas of installations. If in the 30th 20 century installation was considered as a factor of readiness of the subject for action, then in the modern theory of installation it is noted that installation reflects only certain, though is paramount important, feature of any adaptive activity, namely its specific orientation. Also numerous sociological theories are developed for an explanation of C. river of the person.
Consideration of C. river of animals from a position of the theory of functional systems (see) allowed P. K. Anokhin to open physiological sense of «decision-making»: 1)
«decision-making» is result of the afferent synthesis (see) made by an organism on the basis of the dominating motivation (see); 2) «decision-making» exempts an organism from extremely large amount of degrees of freedom and by that promotes formation of integral (sum) of the efferent vozbuzhdeniye necessary and making adaptive sense for an organism exactly at present and in this situation; 3) «decision-making» is perelomnykhm the moment, later to-rogo all combinations of vozbuzhdeniye gain executive, efferent character.
Discussions and about how correction of behavior that finally the live organism would achieve implementation of a goal is carried out continue. Numerous approaches to an explanation of checkings mechanisms, a feed-back are known. In particular,
And. S. Beritashvili developed ideas of «images», N. P. Bekhterev — about «detectors of mistakes» etc. According to the concept of T-O-T-E (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) of G. A. Miller, E. Galan-ter, Pribram (K. N. of Pribram), temporary strengthenings of «mismatches» are means of achievement of «approval» in later (and therefore solving) a phase of action. N. A. Bernstein pointed to an important role of «mismatch» between «reached» and «potrebny» (between «Soll-Wert» and «Ist-Wert»). According to the theory of functional systems in C. the river can allocate the special mechanism — a so-called acceptor of results of action (see), i.e. fiziol. device of anticipation and assessment of results of behavior. The acceptor of results of action anticipates afferent properties of that result, to-ry shall be received and by that gives to an organism the chance to correct errors in implementation of purposeful behavior.
Along with certain achievements in studying of C. rubles are available still the questions requiring the solution, in particular questions why «specific goals» it is better, than «common goals» like «arrive as you know» why «the difficult purposes» lead to mobilization of great efforts, than «lungs» and as it is specifically carried out why presence of «purpose» leads to higher achievements, than absence it, etc.
It is proved that C. rubles are result of activity of a brain in general. At the same time obtaining necessary information on the environment is impossible without preservation of all links of touch systems (see Analyzers). Implementation of C. the river is complicated or impossible at disturbances of functions of the separate formations of a brain providing maintenance of a pose, regulating a tone and intensity of reduction of muscles. At last, assessment of results of activity is sharply broken at defects of bark of big hemispheres (see the Cerebral cortex), and also the structures of a paleocortex (see the Hippocampus, Limbic system) participating in mechanisms of memory (see).
To number of widespread methods of studying of C. rubles belong a method of classical conditioned reflexes (see. Conditioned reflexes), various models of an operant behavior, ethological observations (see Ethology), neurophysiological methods of studying of a role of various formations of a brain in formation of C. river (electrostimulation, destructions, registration of total biological and cellular activity, the analysis of neurochemical mechanisms), methods of experimental psychology, sociological researches, etc.
See also Higher nervous activity.
Bibliography: ANO hinp. K. Biologiya and neurophysiology of a conditioned reflex, M., 1968; B and l and in and I. T. Psikhologiya of installation and cybernetics, page 3, M., 1966; Miller J., to Galanter. and Pribramk. Plans and structure of behavior, the lane with English, M., 1965; Neurophysiological mechanisms of behavior, under the editorship of B. V. Lomov, etc., page 5, M., 1982; Pavlo vi, Item. Complete works, t. 3, book 1, page 306, M. — L., 1951; K. V Pike perches. General theory of functional systems, M., 1984; Uznadze
D. N. Experimental fundamentals of psychology of installation, Tbilisi, 1961; Behavior change through self-control, ed. by M. R. Goldfried a. M. Merbaum, p. 58, N. At. a. o., 1973; M i t with h e 1 1 T. R. Organizational behavior, Ann. Rev. Psychol, v. 30, p. 243, 1979.
V. G. Zilov.