From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PURKYINE Yang (Purkinje Johannes Evangelista, 1787 — 1869) — the Czech scientist and the public figure; one of founders of the doctrine about a cellular texture of plants and animals, the founder of the Prague histologic school.

Ended in 1818 medical f-t Prague un-that. In 1819 protected dokt. the thesis on «About Knowledge of Sight of the Subjective Relation». Worked in the same un-those as the assistant and the prosector. From 1822 to 1849 professor of physiology Breslavlsky (Wroclaw) un-that; in 1839 based fiziol, laboratory (institute) here. Since 1850 professor of physiology in Karlovy un-those in Prague where in 1851 organized fiziol, in-t.

Jan Purkinye is the author of numerous works in the field of physiology, anatomy, embryology, histology; its researches played an important role in formation of modern experimental physiology.

Jan Purkinye found blood vessels (a vascular figure of Purkinye) in an eye of the person, established an opportunity to observe reflections of light from a front and back surface of a crystalline lens (lenticular reflexes), proved practical definition of a field of vision; it possesses a priority in studying of comparative brightness of various flowers at weak lighting (Purkinye's phenomenon). Its works on physiology of sight formed the basis of the theory of the central and peripheral sight developed afterwards.

Studying cellular (granular) structure of various tissues of animals, in 1837 approached understanding of essence of the cellular theory. For the first time applied the term «protoplasm» (1839). Opened nervous cells in gray matter back and a brain of vertebrata (see. Nervous cell), described elements of a neuroglia (see), allocated large pear-shaped nervous cells (Purkinye's cell) in gray matter of bark of a cerebellum, studied the axial cylinders formed by a proteic matter in nerve fibrils, in heart discovered special fibers (Purkinye's fiber), investigated the continuous ciliary motion of cilia of cells of an epithelium of mammals, opened sweat glands and their output channels in skin, glands of a mucous membrane of a stomach, established that bile slows down effect of pepsin, studied types of an arrangement of skin combs on trailer phalanxes of fingers of a hand that mattered in development of dactyloscopy. Improved technique of microscopic examination: in its laboratory one of the first microtomes was designed, the microscope is improved, the conclusion of cuts in balm, coloring of drugs is applied, the special device for crush of fabrics is created (kompressorium).

Jan Purkinye was the organizer of Czech about-va doctors, about-va arts, about-va national theater; he was a member of radical mladocheshsky party, was elected the deputy in the Czech diet where he asserted the rights of the Czech people and independence of Czech; was an editor of the natural-historical magazine, the participant (1848) of the Prague Slavic congress, the director (1857) of the first Czech industrial school. Jan Purkinye was the honorary member of many foreign academies, scientific institutions and about-in, including. The St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy, Ob-va of the Russian doctors in St. Petersburg, Kharkiv un-that, etc.

Works: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht, Prag., 1819, 1823; Commentatio de examine physiologico or-gani visus et systematis cutanei, Vratisla-viae, 1823; Opera omnia (Sebranö spisy), t. 1 — 12, Praha, 1918 —-1969; Opera selecta, Pragae, 1948; Abhandlung über die physiologische Untersuchung des Sehorgans und des Hautssystemsj Halle (Saale), 1979.

Bibliography: Glyazer G. Drama medicine, the lane with it is mute., page 129, M., 1965; Katsnelson 3. C. The cellular theory in its historical development, page 87, etc., L., 1963; To about with and c to and y G. I. Jan Ievanguelist Purkine, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 2, page 56, 1963; Kravkov S. V. Jan Purkinye and science about sight, Vestn. oftalm., t. 23, century 5, page 3, 1944; Pototsky M. N. Jan Evangelist Purkinye, Fiziol, shurn. USSR, t. 56, No. 5, page 815, 1970; Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher (Purkyne-Symposion), hrsg. v. H. Zaunick, Lpz., 1961; John H. J. Jan Evangelista of Rigkupyo, Philadelphia, 1959; By and t and V., J. E. Rigkupyo (1787 — 1869), physiologist, Prague, 1969.

L. S. Sutulov.