From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PUPILLOGRAFIYA (Latin pupilla a pupil + grech, grapho to write, represent) — a graphical method of dynamic registration of size of a pupil. By means of P. options of width of a pupil, size of an anisocoria are studied fiziol, (see), the nature of forward and consensual reactions of pupils on local zasvt (the directed onions of light on area of an eye), spontaneous fluctuations of diameter of a pupil are normal also at pathology, convergence of eyes (see), influence on a pupil of various pharmaceuticals (pharmakol. test), sound, color and other irritants.

In a wedge, the practician P. apply to diagnosis of diseases of an organ of sight and c. N of page. Revealed by means of P. patol, a mydriasis (see the Mydriasis) or its narrowing (see. Miosis ). disturbance of convergence of forward and consensual reactions of pupils on light, results pharmakol. tests allow to define character and localization patol, the process which caused these changes of pupils (see. Pupillary reflexes ).

Options normal pupillogramm forward reaction of pupils for local will fall asleep a macular zone of a retina during 0,2 sec.: and — bystry and short-term narrowing of a pupil with the subsequent bystry expansion; — bystry and long narrowing of a pupil with the subsequent slow expansion; in — slow drying of a pupil with the subsequent slow expansion. The black horizontal lines characterizing diameter of a pupil before and after a zasvet of a retina are divided by a calibration scale into separate pieces which width corresponds to 1 mm; the moment of a zasvet of a retina is specified by an arrow.

Items carry out by means of a kinematopupillograf in 2 stages: in the beginning make filming of pupils on a highly sensitive film with a speed of 10 shots of 1 sec., then automatically by means of the special device which is carrying out photoscanning of a pupil the analysis of the photographed shots and registration on the highly sensitive not exhibited film of horizontal diameters of a pupil in the form of straight lines (pupillogramm) is made. On each line the special calibration scale imprints, cover one division equally in 1 mm. It allows to determine the absolute sizes of diameter of a pupil in millimeters. By means of a caliper perform measurement with an accuracy of 0,1 mm. Normal pupillogramm forward reaction of pupils on local zasvt options a macular zone of a retina during 0,2 sec. are represented in the drawing. In addition to diameters of a pupil, on a pupillogramma also the horizontal movements of eyes are fixed, thus the pupillografiya can be used also for studying of convergence (see fig. 1 and 2 to article Convergence of eyes ). Shortcomings of this type of P. — the strong background lighting necessary for filming of a pupil that creates nefiziol. also does not allow to dose conditions for studying of pupillary reflexes and spontaneous fluctuations of a pupil zasvt, and labor input (2 stages).

A. Ya. Samoylov and A. R. Shakhnovich offered local P., at a cut the light irritant and the area of a zasvet of a retina are strictly dosed. The special arrangement (lines of a look of the examinee are lower) lamps of background lighting allows to light well an iris, almost without lighting a retina. In these conditions width of a normal pupil almost same, as in the dark.

For reduction of labor input of a research the photoscanning pupillograf which are at the same time carrying out discrete record of movements of a pupil and scanning, and also the devices providing the automated processing pupillogramm on the COMPUTER are offered. Abroad use electronic pupillograf and videopupillograf.

See also Pupillometriya .

Bibliography: Ananin V. F. Objective methods of a research of sight of the person; Fiziol, person, t. 2, No. 4, page 693, 1976; Merkulov I. I. and Woman of X. I. Some questions of reaction of pupils to light, in book: Vopr. neyroof-talmas., under the editorship of I. I. Merkulov, t. 7, page 87, Kharkiv, 1961; Samoylov A. Ya. and Shakhnovich A. R. A new method of a local pupillografiya and its use in physiology and clinic, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 4, page 47, 1958; Sokolova of O. N. Oftalmonevrologiya of defeats of a mesencephalon, M., 1971; Shakhnovich A. R. and Shakhnovich of V. R. Pupillografiya, M., 1964, bibliogr.; Hamann K. U. and. lake of Videopupillo-graphic and VER investigations in patients with congenital and acquired lesions of the optic radiation, Ophthalmologica, v. 178, p. 348, 1979; Müller-Jensen A. Untersuchunger zur Pupillen — Lichtreflex — Dynamik mittels Infrarot — Reflex-pupillographie, Fortschr. Med., Bd 96, S. 27, 1978.

O. H. Sokolova.