PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS — the standardized tasks, result of performance to-rykh allows to measure nek-ry psychophysiological and personal characteristics, and also to estimate knowledge and skills of investigated. The most informative tests in a crust, time in the USSR are approved and gained distribution of hl. obr. in medicine.
Etc. shall meet the following requirements: commonality (constancy of tasks and all conditions of their performance), objectivity (data to a minimum of an opportunity for investigated purposefully to influence results), reliability (high degree of similarity of results of repeated measurements on the same examinee without change of its state), adequacy (validity of use of this test). Use Other assumes existence of the standards received on rather representative in the qualitative and quantitative relation and regularly updated selections.
Theoretical bases of testing were developed by the English psychologist Galton (F. Galt it, 1883). Thanks to its works active implementation in psychology of methods of mathematical statistics began (see. Variation statistics , Correlation analysis , Statistics sanitary , Factor analysis ). Broad development of tests and their selection began since 1890 when program work of the employee Galtona J. Cattell «Intellectual tests and measurements» was published.
In a crust, time in medicine about three thousand various Etc. for psychodiagnostics of the personality for psychotherapy and social rehabilitation of the patients, for identification erased and the latent forms of mental pathology, risk of a decompensation, suicide and aggressive actions, simulation, for differential diagnosis and for the purpose of tracing of a current and efficiency of therapy of mental diseases, and also for the solution of such practical tasks as career guidance and professional selection for reduction of accident rate, traumatism and increase in labor productivity on transport and the industrial enterprises, for selection of operators and astronauts, in army for selection of recruits in special parts and flight schools, etc.
Etc. divide selection of children in auxiliary schools where training is conducted according to special programs, into tests of efficiency, or productivity, and personal tests are used. Tests of efficiency allow to estimate intellectual activity, first of all thinking, memory, attention (intellectual tests) both the general and special abilities (tests of the general and special abilities). Personal tests depending on what serves as material of a research — self-assessments of examinees, their self-expression of a pla behavior are subdivided respectively on subjective, projective and objective. Subjective personal tests include scales of a self-assessment, questionnaires of installations and interests, personal questionnaires. At projective personal tests rather uncertain material is shown to investigated, to-ry it shall add, develop, interpret, etc. Depending on it they are subdivided into several classes (constructive, interpretive, tests of end, art creativity, etc.). Tests belong to objective tests, with the help to-rykh real acts of examinees are estimated (e.g., nek-ry conformality tests). Besides, Etc. are subdivided on individual and group (the last allow to reveal the individuals needing more profound, most often a wedge, a research); verbal (the tasks demanding the verbal answer) and nonverbal (tasks on a manipulation, napr, folding of a complete figure from its separate parts); tests of results and way of the decision; tests are written, oral and hardware.
The most used intellectual test is Wexler's test. Its option for adults represents set of 11 classical techniques united in a single whole on the basis of special statistical processing of results on each technique. From them 6 tasks verbal (awareness, comprehension, arithmetic tasks, finding of similarity, reproduction of digital ranks, the dictionary) and 5 nonverbal (a reencryption, finding of missing details in the drawing, a vykladyvaniye of ornaments on samples from special cubes, establishment of the correct sequence of pictures, addition of the dismembered figures). Answers are estimated on the established scales. The number of points received on all tasks is transferred by means of the tables fulfilled on the big contingent investigated, to the corresponding intelligence quotient (IQ). Wexler's test gives not only I.Q., but also its qualitative profile according to all subtests, allowing to estimate degree of intellectual insufficiency and mental retardation (see. Oligophrenias ).
General ability tests reveal possession of the speech and account, accuracy of perception, ability to allocate essential details in the speech and tabular materials, space imagination, motor dexterity, speed of reaction etc. Sets of such tests are widely used for the choice of a profile of professional training.
Tests of special abilities are often carried out on devices like the exercise machines allowing to model necessary operations, assessment of time and quality of performance to-rykh is made automatically.
Among subjective personal tests of a scale of a self-assessment are the simplest reception of a research of the personality. In a wedge, practice the greatest distribution was gained by Beck's scales, Tsunga and others, periodically filled by patients; they allow to track, e.g., dynamics of a depression under the influence of psychopharmacological means (see). The most developed picture comes to light during the use of a method of semantic differential, or polar profiles, to-ry allows to find out perception by the examinee of various objects, phenomena, concepts and his change under the influence of various factors. Originally, on the basis of the limit list of signs of the studied object scales of polar adjectives are formed. Usually the number of scales varies from 20 to 100; they are estimated in points (from 5 to 9). Investigated makes assessment on all scales. Results are processed by means of factor analysis. Distribution was gained by also sociometric test which is sorting out the informal relations and emotional bonds in small social group.
From personal questionnaires the Minnesota multiphase personal questionnaire (MMPI) is most widespread. It consists of 550 cards with statements. Depending on the attitude towards them («truly», «incorrectly», «I do not know») the examinee displays cards on three groups. Processing of results gives a profile, to-ry then is interpreted. The profile consists of 10 main and 3 control scales allowing to reveal a tendency to aggravation dissimulation and aspiration «to prove to be in the best light». Except hy, exists apprx. 400 additional scales used for more special purposes. In Russian there are two options of adaptation of MMPI. Along with MMPI also 16-factor personal questionnaire offered by Kattell is widely used (Y. V. of Cattell). Data of these questionnaires supplement each other. In the USSR appropriately processed (adapted) also children's personal questionnaires of Kattell — HSPQ and CPQ are used. The original patokharakterologichesky diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ) is developed for teenagers by A. E. Lichko.
From projective personal tests are the most known Rorshakh's test (see. Rorshakh test ), thematic apperceptive test (TAT), tests of unfinished offers and test of a research of frustrations (creation of a situation of failure) of Rosenzweig. In the TAT the examinee makes stories according to 20 drawings with uncertain plots, specifying what here occurs that preceded it, than it will come to an end that is thought and felt by all characters. In tests of unfinished offers investigated completes a series of unfinished offers in conditional-temporal deficit. In Rosenzweig's test investigated, looking at 24 schematic drawings, quickly answers for the character, to Krom the various frustrating remarks are addressed. Also pictural tests are widely used, at-rykh by investigated suggest to make the drawing, napr, to draw the person, a tree.
An example of objective personal tests are conformality tests (assessment of degree of resistance of opinions, preferences and acts of the individual to the group pressure, i.e. norms, standards of group); investigated at execution of certain tasks becomes the witness of their performance by false group (not less than 7 — 9 people behaving according to in advance developed scenario), at the same time the behavior investigated depending on pressure of group is estimated. To criteria of the objective personal test in the greatest measure there corresponds the system of the methods developed at school is mute. the psychologist Levin (To. Lewin). In the conditions of a laboratory experiment the standardized life situations are created, in to-rykh real acts investigated are investigated.
The most effective is use of the battery (a set of tests) made according to research problems. E.g., for differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and a shizofrenopodobny pathopsyhosis of one of the most informative the battery consisting of Rorshakh's test, Bender - the gestalt test, MMPI and the test of Burdon is. Such battery is supplemented with use of not test experimental techniques: classifications of objects, pictograms, the interrupted actions. But also at this set of researches, as well as in other cases, the diagnosis is impossible without data klpniko-psikhopa-tolite. method.
The methodical center for a problem of tests is the problem commission on medical psychology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, and head — State research psychoneurological in-t of V. M. Bekhterev of M3 of RSFSR. Big rehabilitation (psychological) departments are created in All-Union cardiological scientific center and All-Union oncological scientific center of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. T. and. medical psychologists of psychiatric BCs and clinics use.
Bibliography: Avanesov V. S. Tests in a sociological research, M., 1982; And N and with t and z and And. Psychological testing, the lane with English, book 1 — 2, M., 1982; Berezin F. B., M and r about sh N and-kov M. P. and Rozhanets R. V. Metodika of a multilateral research of the personality, M., 1976, bibliogr.; Bleykher V. M. Clinical patopsikhologiya, Tashkent, 1976; M. M., Lichko A. E. Boars., Smirnov V. M. Methods of psychological diagnosis and correlation in clinic, L., 1983; Kiselyov I. Ya. Vocational guidance and professional selection in the capitalist countries, M., 1968; The Grant on use of a psychological technique of MMPI, sost. L. N. Sobchik, M., 1971; Psychodiagnostic methods (in a complex longitudinal research of students), under the editorship of A. A. Bodalev, L., 1976; Sokolova E. T. Projective methods of a research of the personality, M., 1980, bibliogr.
Yu. S. Savenko.