From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROTEUS (synonym proteas) — group of bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, tribe of Proteeae, sort Proteus.

The type-species of R. — Proteus vulgaris — are allocated by G. Hauser in 1885. Across Berdzhi (D. The N of Bergey, 1974), a sort includes 5 types: P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. morganii, P. rettgeri (nek-ry researchers carry this look to the sort Providenda), R. inconstans with subspecies And yes Century. According to Ewing's proposal (W. The N of Ewing), etc., is allocated to inconstans with R. in the sort Providencia (according to the name of the area in the USA) with two types — P. alcalifaciens and P. stuartii. Allocation of the sort Providencia is accepted the International nomenclature committee (1963). Rhoda Proteus and Providencia (see) make a tribe of Proteeae.

The river — opportunistic pathogenic bacteriums, a role of separate types in pathology of the person is various. P. morganii and P. rettgeri are found at enterita, is frequent at children; P. mirabilis — at the diseases of urinogenital system, otitises, wound fevers, purulent and septic processes, food toxicoinfections connected with consumption of substandard meat and fish products often are in intestines of the person, in economic and household drain waters. P. vulgaris — a putrefactive microbe, meets in the objects of the environment contaminated by the remains of an animal and plant origin; in large numbers it is found in the waters contaminated by dumpings food (meat - and vegetable-processing) the enterprises. Its detection in foodstuff — a sign of their poor quality. P. morganii and P. rettgeri until recently seldom managed to be found in the environment. Use of more active mediums allowed to allocate them from economic and household drain waters and the river water contaminated by them.

Mikropreparata of bacteria of Proteus vulgaris from agar culture: and — in 6 hours of growth (threadlike forms) — in 24 hours of growth (kokkobakteriya); coloring across Gram; x 700.

River — the gram-negative, not forming a dispute, capsules and a pigment polymorphic sticks (fig). Are mobile at the expense of peritrikhialno the located flagellums (N-form), but can lose mobility (aflagellar O-forms) that is often observed at R.'s strains of mirabilis allocated from an organism and from drain waters. Are undemanding to nutritious substrates. Growth is possible at t ° 10 — 43 °. In a beef-extract broth give plentiful diffusion opacification of the environment with a gentle film on a surface. On a beef-extract agar of the N-form grow, extending on all Wednesday (a phenomenon of swarming), O-forms form large convex grayish colonies. Rubles — facultative anaerobes, intensively produce urease (except for R. of inconstans) and a tryptophanase (except for R. of mirabilis). R. have vulgaris and R. is expressed to mirabi lis proteolytic activity (the proteolysis to amino acids, products of a zhelatinaza, formation of hydrogen sulfide). All types deaminize phenylalanine, P. mirabilis and P. morganii decarboxylize ornithine, and the first is active also in large numbers — a histidine with education histamine (see). P. morganii decarboxylizes also a lysine. Sakharolitichesky activity at different types is various. All types of R. ferment glucose, is rare with formation of gas. Diagnostic value has lack of fermentation of a mannitol (except P. rettgeri, 88,5% of strains to-rogo ferment this alcohol) and the maltose fermented only P. vulgaris. Sucrose is vigorously decomposed by P. vulgaris and in a slowed-up way P. mirabilis. The smallest sakharolitichesky activity is shown by P. morganii.

Rubles are steady against many antibiotics. All types of a rezistentna to polymyxin and, except for nek-ry strains of P. mirabilis, to penicillin. Everything, except P. morganii, a rezistentna to tetracycline. The greatest sensitivity of R. is noted concerning cephalosporins and aminoglizid. As well as all enterobakteriya, proteas have thermostable O-antigens, and mobile forms, besides — thermolabile N-antigens. At P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis it is revealed to 110 serol. options (serovars), from them the 1, 2 and 3 react with the antibodies which are formed at nek-ry rickettsioses; at P. morganii — 66 serovars, at P. rettgeri — 45. Dayens's test is based on distinction of N-antigens (L. Dienes, 1946): crops on different poles of a cup with a beef-extract agar of strains with identical N-antigens lead to merge of the crowding colonies, with different — to education on limit of the crowding cultures of a line of demarcation.

For release of protiums I. Shukevich's method based on a phenomenon of swarming is eurysynusic: crops in condensation liquid of a new-mown beef-extract agar are led to distribution by a protea on a surface of an agar. This method revealing only mobile forms can be applied only to detection of P. vulgaris in foodstuff for the purpose of definition their dignity. states. For R.'s allocation mirabilis from patol, material, in Krom it is often in the O-form, and also P. morganii and P. rettgeri, at to-rykh a phenomenon of swarming is absent, the method is not applicable.

For allocation, the quantitative account and R.'s identification fluid mediums of accumulation with polymyxin and urea, and for release of pure growths and preliminary identification — the dense differential and selection environment, in a cut polymyxin can be used, crystal violet and bilious salts exclude the vast majority of the accompanying microflora, and existence of a mannitol, maltose, sodium thiosulphate and citrate ammonium-iron allows to identify already at this stage main types of protiums. For final identification of R. on biochemical signs carry out crops on complex Wednesdays, in to-rykh define tryptophane deaminase, urease, products of hydrogen sulfide and an indole, fermentation of an adonit, inositol, maltose and mannitol.

See also Bacteria .

Bibliography: G.'s P guelder-rose, and Komarova L. T. Detection, the quantitative accounting and identification of bacteria of a sort Proteus in objects of the environment, Zhurn. mikr., epid. and immun., No. 12, page 54, 1975; Methods of indication of bacteria and viruses in objects of the environment, under the editorship of A. P. Shitskova, etc., page 76, M., 1982; Sanitary microbiology, iod of an edition of G. P. Guelder-rose and G. N. Chi-stovich, page 79, 146, M., 1969; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, p. 293 a. o., Baltimore, 1974; Edwards P. R. a. Ewing W. H. Identification of enterobacteriaceae, Minneapolis, 1972; Laboratory procedures in clinical microbiology, ed. by J. A. Washington, N. Y. a. o., 1981.

G. P. Kalina.