PROTECTION AGAINST MEANS OF WAR OF DEFEAT — a complex of the actions directed to prevention or weakening of the striking action of all types of weapon for preservation of health and life of staff of troops and the civilian population, and also preservation of arms, military equipment and appliances.
Means of protection of people from means of war of defeat were created throughout all history of wars and caused by the level of development of arms and military equipment. Before emergence of firearms for protection of soldiers from damages preferential individual means of protection were used: boards from a tree, rods or dense felt; shishak from skin, leather belts, bibs, shoulder straps, etc.
In the subsequent for strengthening of protective properties of these means metal designs were used (strips, plates, rings, etc.). In the Middle Ages wooden and leather objects of protection were replaced with metal helmets, helmets, armor, chain armors and other heavy fighting armor. They rather reliably protected soldiers from cold weapon, though held down the movements.
With the advent of firearms and the subsequent its improvement these individual means of protection gradually lost value, and by 19 century in armies of all countries on arms only metal helmets (helmets) remained. Steel helmets in the Soviet Army are entered in 1939 — 1940; they well proved during the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945).
The attention to development of individual means of protection again sharply increased in connection with emergence of the chemical weapon capable to cause damages to people through respiratory organs and skin. The first means of protection of a respiratory organs from the chlorine applied during World War I (1914 — 1918) as fighting OV appeared in 1915. They represented bandages or masks stigmas from a gauze impregnated with water solutions of hyposulphite and soda; with the advent of phosgene and chloropicrin for impregnation of bandages and masks began to use urotropin.
In 1915 N. D. Zelinsky offered for protection of a respiratory organs the filtering gas mask with active coal to which in the subsequent the filtering fibrous materials were added. Nowadays existing designs filtering and isolating gas mask (see) reliably protect respiratory organs, a face and eyes from all types of OV, from biol, aerosols and radioactive dust. For protection of a respiratory organs against radioactive dust I bacterial aerosols can be used also respirators (see).
In World War I after use by Germans of yperite as fighting OV there was a need, in addition to protection of a respiratory organs, to provide also protection of all surface of skin. Suits from the oiled fabrics were the first means of protection of skin from yperite. They in essence were the first samples of the isolating protective clothes since were as well air-tight. In the subsequent more effective remedies of impregnation (impregnation) of usual military regimentals detaining penetration through fabrics of vapors of yperite were developed. For protection of skin against vapors of yperite also protective ointments which were applied on open body parts were offered. With emergence on arms of some armies of the capitalist states of other OV of dermatovesical action (a lewisite and nitrogenous yperite), and later and FOV of skin and resorptive action (herd, sarin, GD, etc.) there was a need of creation of more well-tried remedies of protection of skin. Also more perfect means of impregnation (impregnation) of usual regimentals and linen (on the basis of washing synthetic means and other drugs) providing short-term protection of skin of people against vaporous and kapelnozhidky OV were offered. Also antitack agents of protection — the suits, overalls, raincoats and capes added with gloves, stockings, boot covers or boots began to be improved. These means of protection of skin were originally made of proolifenny fabrics on which the film of polymer, and then hl was applied. obr. from proof fabrics on the basis of various rubbers.
Long stay of people in the isolating clothes (suits and overalls) in summertime leads to disturbance of a heat balance of an organism (see. Thermal shock ). For prevention of it over a suit (overalls) it is offered to put on the wet shielding dressing gown from light cotton and thus to reduce temperature in subcostume space.
On foreign sources, for giving of firmness to materials from which the usual regimentals are sewed to ignition from the light radiation of nuclear explosions enter antipyretics into structure of an impregnat, films of polymers and rubbers (see. Clothes protective, military ).
For protection of troops and the population against means of war of defeat are used collective means of protection (see). In the ancient time the cities and military fortresses were surrounded with the ditches in the period of a siege filled by water, earth shaft, enclosed with fortifications, etc. With the advent of firearms, and then and weapons of mass destruction collective means of protection became the difficult engineering constructions which are reliably protecting from destructive action of modern means of war, including and nuclear weapon, and also providing performance by the people who are in these shelters, long work in the conditions of infection of an outside atmosphere chemical, biol. and radioactive aerosols. Many mobile means of conducting combat operations which are armed armies (armored personnel carriers, self-propelled installations, tanks, airplanes, etc.), are also rather well-tried remedies of collective protection of troops in the conditions of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction.
Use as a military weapon incendiary mixes (see) caused the necessity of development of means and actions for protection of troops and the population from this type of weapon.
According to a foreign press, in addition to giving to general individual means of protection of resistance to not contact and contact effect of fire by inclusion in impregnata and materials of the isolating clothes of antipyretics, the special heat-resistant suits intended for the divisions participating in elimination of seats of fire were created from not flammable materials. Reliably protect from all types of incendiary mixes collective means of protection, and also natural shelters (caves, developments, stone buildings, etc.).
In a complex of means of protection of troops and the population from means of war of defeat medical means are of great importance. They are also subdivided on individual and group. Treat individual medical means of protection first-aid antigas kit (see), individual first-aid kit (see), package dressing individual (see); to collective (group) — onboard first-aid kits, to-rymi are completed fighting vehicles, a medical army bag (see. First-aid kit ), and also sets for rendering medical aid directly in the centers mass a dignity. losses. Individual and collective medical means of protection provide rendering the first medical aid struck, succession at stages of medical evacuation, and also during transportation.
The organization of holding actions for protection against means of war of defeat in troops is carried out by headquarters of all degrees, and among the civilian population — headquarters of GO. At the same time the main efforts go for implementation of actions for protection against weapons of mass destruction. These actions include: 1) continuous conducting investigation and overseeing by the opponent for the purpose of detection in its arrangement of the objects which are probable carriers of means of mass defeat, the analysis of the data obtained by investigation; 2) the organization and implementation radiation, chemical and bacterial, investigations in areas of accommodation of troops and in the territory of settlements; 3) the organization of communication and the warning system of troops and the civilian population about threat or about the fact of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction; 4) the equipment of protective engineering constructions and other actions for the engineering equipment of the area in regions of a disposition, and in the conditions of GO, besides, reduction in readiness of protective constructions in settlements; 5) masking and dispersal of troops, withdrawal of the disabled population from the cities which can be subjects to attack of the opponent to in advance planned areas, and evacuation of patients in medical institutions of country zones; 6) carrying out protivoepid. (antiepizootic) and dignity. - a gigabyte. the actions providing acquisition about biol, weapon of the opponent, implementation of preventive inoculations to staff of troops and the population against especially dangerous infections, reduction in readiness for use of means of the emergency prevention, specific indication of types biol. weapon, and also means of disinfection, deratization, disinsection, etc.; 7) carrying out complex of actions for mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction.
For holding actions for mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction in troops divisions of engineering troops, chemical and medical services are attracted. For the help army divisions can be allocated to them.
Divisions of chemical service conduct in the center radiation, chemical and nonspecific bacterial, investigation, define a type of the applied O B and a zone of infection of OV, measure and designate zones with dangerous radiation levels, select for researches of test of materials, suspicious on infection of RV, OV, BS, will organize and check full sanitary cleaning of staff of troops and special processing of arms and the equipment in not infected territory. Divisions of engineering troops determine the volume and the nature of destructions, floodings, blockages, the fires in the center and establish ways of their bypasses or create in them passes, remove people from the destroyed and damaged constructions, buildings, military equipment; will organize and carry out suppression of the fires; make water treatment from RV, OV and BS, and if necessary equip new sources of water supply.
Divisions of medical service provide rendering the first medical aid, will organize evacuation struck out of limits of the center in medical institutions; carry out expertize of water and food, define a type of the applied BS and report on command of the offer on introduction in the military units which appeared in zones of infection, the mode observations (see) or a quarantine (see. Karantin, karantinization ) depending on the mechanism of transfer of the activator.
Protection of the population against means of war of defeat in the cities and settlements is assigned to the relevant services and formations of GO. The communication service provides the notification of the population about threat of attack, communication between headquarters, services and formations of GO. The security service of public order provides maintenance of a due order during evacuation and dispersal of the population, carrying out rescue operations.
The fire service conducts fire investigation, carries out localization and suppression of the fires, participates in carrying out of people from the burning buildings and constructions, and also in carrying out deactivation and decontamination. The engineering service will organize construction of shelters and shelters, carries out clearing of drives and passes, extraction of people from under blockages, the destroyed buildings and constructions, the filled-up shelters and shelters. The utility and technical service carries out disinfecting of the territory, the equipment, clothes, footwear, individual means of protection and sanitary cleaning of people. The transport service provides transportation of the population at dispersal, delivery of formations of GO to subjects to rescue operations, evacuation of victims from the centers of defeat in to lay down. institutions. The service of food supply and ware provides the population and formations of GO with food stuffs and necessities. The service of antiradiation and antichemical protection will organize and carries out radiation and chemical survey in areas of use of weapons of mass defeat, exercises radiation control behind radiation of staff, impurity of RV of objects, participates in carrying out deactivation and sanitary cleaning.
Formations of a health service of GO take part jointly with rescue groups and formations of engineering service in search, extraction of wounded from under blockages, the destroyed buildings, provide rendering the first medical aid by the victim in the center of mass losses, will organize medical and evacuation, a dignity. - a gigabyte. and protivoepid, actions.
Bibliography: Arkhangelsk A. M., etc. Bacteriological weapon and protection against it, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Protection against means of mass defeat, Zhurn. Vsesoyuz, chemical islands of D. I. Mendeleyev, t. 13, No. 6, 1968; To about t of l at to about in K. G., Ogloblin K. S. and Since and l of e in with to and y A. I. Civil protection yesterday and today, M., 1975; M and N of e of c of F. I., etc. Protection against weapons of mass destruction, M., 1971; Rothschild J. N. Weapon of tomorrow, the lane with English, M., 1966; At T and N. Chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapon and effects of its possible use, M., 1970.
B. V. Trofimov.