From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROSTHETIC AND ORTHOPEDIC PRODUCTS — technical means for treatment of patients with diseases and deformations of a musculoskeletal system, a skull, a chest or abdominal wall, acoustic organs p sight, and also for compensation of cosmetic and functional defects of various areas and human organs. To P. - the lake and. belong: prostheses (see), orthoses (see), reklinator, headholders, supplementary devices for footwear (insole. shoes), prostheses of a mammary gland, obturators for closing of defects of a thorax, an abdominal wall and a skull, hearing aids (see), eye prostheses (see. Prosthesis eye ), dentures (see), and also bandages (see), orthopedic footwear (see. Footwear ), splints (see. Orthoses ), gloves on an artificial brush and on cages to working prostheses of hands.

Carry also special vehicles for patients and disabled people to prosthetic and orthopedic products: crutches (see), canes, small-size room carriages, chair-beds, carriages with mechanical and electric drives, etc.

Reklinatora are intended for conservative treatment of a kyphosis of chest department of a backbone at the level of Th III — Th VII . They are soft and rigid. Action of that and others is based on assignment of a shoulder girdle and the easy pressure upon a backbone in the field of top of a kyphosis back. Reklinatora are effective in a complex with LFK, massage and electrostimulation of muscles of a back, hydrotherapeutic procedures. In the course of treatment dispensary observation for patients is necessary.

Headholders are intended for deduction of the head in a standard position and unloadings of cervical department of a backbone at his diseases and damages. Are shown at an injury and inflammatory processes in cervical department of a backbone (tuberculosis, osteomyelitis), at the deforming and ankylosing processes, after operations on soft tissues of a neck. at paralysis and paresis of muscles of a neck after a tick-borne encephalitis and other similar states leading to involuntary droop of the head. Headholders lean on shoulder girdles, and are fixed on a thorax.

Insocks apply in standard footwear for correction of the longitudinal and cross arches of foot at flat-footedness (see) and other deformations of foot and fingers, at in whole or in part basic stumps of feet after their amputation in metatarsal area.

Supplementary shoes use in standard footwear at short partially basic stumps of foot.

The artificial mammary gland is recommended to the women who transferred a mastectomy at a full wound repair and after the termination of a course of radiation therapy.

Gloves are given for an artificial brush during the receiving a prosthesis. There are 5 standard sizes of gloves on the right and left brushes for adults and for children.

Nozzles to working prostheses of hands select individually taking into account a profession and the state of health, intensity of alleged work, its character and conditions.

See also Prosthetics .

Bibliography: Dikkert G. A., etc. Technology of prosthetic engineering, M., 1958, bibliogr.; Cake layer A. A. and Berdnikov V. A. Amputation of extremities and express prosthetics, Kiev, 1977; The Multivolume guide to orthopedics and traumatology, under the editorship of N. P. Novachenko, t. 1, page 655, M., 1967; Nikolaev L. P. Biomechanical bases of prosthetics, M., 1954, bibliogr.; Prosthetics of children with defects of extremities, under the editorship of V. I. Filatov, L., 1981, bibliogr.; R about-shchin G. I., Bankin V. A. and Jacobson Ja. S. Designs of prosthetic and orthopedic products, M., 1961, bibliogr.; The guide to prosthetics, under the editorship of N. I. Kondrashin, M., 1976, bibliogr.; The reference book on prosthetics, under the editorship of V. I. Filatov, L., 1978; Schenk N. A. Medical prosthetics in orthopedics, M., 1975, bibliogr.

N. I. Kondrashin.