From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROSTATOGRAFIYA (grech, prostates grapho standing ahead + to write, represent) — a X-ray analysis of a prostate by means of artificial contrasting of the bodies and fabrics surrounding it.

There are several ways of obtaining the x-ray image of a prostate: the pnevmotsistografiya (see Tsistografiya) for the first time offered for this purpose in 1910 by Burckhard and Flerkken (L. Burkhard, H. Floercken); the pnevmotsistoperitsistografiya offered in 1922 by P. Rosenstein; a pnevmotsistografiya against the background of a pneumoretroperitoneum (see); the double contrast study of a bladder (a lacunary tsistografiya) offered in 1938 to Knayza and Shober (O. of Kneise, To. L. Schober), etc.

Fig. 1. Pnevmotsistogramma at adenoma of a prostate: against the background of the gas entered into a bladder the shadow (it is specified by shooters) the increased prostate is visible.
Fig. 2. Pnevmotsistoperitsistotomogramma at a prostate cancer: against the background of the gas entered into a bladder and paravesical cellulose uneven, hilly contours of a cancer tumor (are specified by shooters) a prostate are visible.

Items apply to diagnosis high-quality (adenoma) and malignant tumors of a prostate. Pnevmotsistografiya allows to see the prostate (fig. 1) increased, pressing in a gleam of a bladder, and the combination of a pnevmotsistografiya with a pnevmoperitsistografiya or a pneumoretroperitoneum gives the chance to define nizhnenaruzhny contours of gland, to reveal a malignant tumor (fig. 2) and its relationship with surrounding fabrics and bodies, to define a subvesical or intravezikalny growth form of adenoma of a prostate.

For carrying out a pnevmotsistografiya previously emptied bladder fill 150 — 200 cm on a catheter 3 oxygen, nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide gas.

Much better the prostate is determined at a double contrast study of a bladder by a method to Knayza — Shobera. At the same time enter 20 ml of 20 — 30% of solution of a liquid contrast agent into a bladder (Iodamidum, Verografinum, etc.) and 150 — 200 cm 3 gas.

Pnevmotsistoperitsistografiya is made under local anesthesia in position of the patient on spin. Paravesical cellulose is punktirut in suprapubic area or in a crotch in the middle of distance between a scrotum and an anus on both sides from the centerline, otstupya on 1 cm from it. If from a needle blood is not emitted, slowly by means of the device for artificial pheumothorax or two devices of Bobrov enter 250 — 300 cm into cellulose 3 gas from each party at perineal and 500 — 600 cm 3 at a suprapubic puncture. Then enter into a bladder on a catheter 150 — 200 cm 3 gas. The X-ray analysis, a tomography or a zonografiya in a straight line and slanting projections are made 10 — 15 min. later after administration of gas.

Contraindication for administration of gas in a bladder the hamaturia serves, administration of gas in cellulose of a basin is contraindicated at acute inflammatory processes in it, a varicosity of a rectum.

At P.'s carrying out there can be complications connected with a puncture of paravesical cellulose: damages of vessels, bladder, rectum. Prevention of side reactions and complications includes strict observance of the technique of a research, rules of an asepsis and antiseptics, careful overseeing by the patient in the course of the research and after it.

Bibliography: Pytel A. Ya. and Pytel Yu. A. Radiodiagnosis of urological diseases, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Kneise O. u. Schober K. L. Die Röntgenuntersuchung der Harnorgane, Lpz., 1963.

Century of M. Perelman.