From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROKHASK Jiri (1749 — 1820) — the Czech doctor, the physiologist, the anatomist and the ophthalmologist.


In 1776 ended medical f-t Vienna un-that. From 1778 to 1780 and in 1791 — 1818 professor of anatomy of it un-that; from 1780 to 1791 professor un-that in Prague. At the same time was engaged in medical practice as the ophthalmologist; made apprx. 3000 operations for a cataract.

In the natural-science views I. Prokhask proceeded from recognition of close interrelation of natural phenomena, unity of an organism and the environment surrounding it, the leading role of a nervous system in regulation of functions of an organism. Its pilot studies were devoted to studying of structure and functions of a nervous system, structure of muscles, questions of blood circulation. It described a myelin cover of a nerve; stated a brilliant guess about functional value front and back, roots of a spinal cord, having as if anticipated these the discovery made later by Ch. Bell and T. Mazhaidi; entered a concept of «the nervous force» into physiology, edges are given on nerve fibrils at impact on an organism of «the exciting reasons», and the term «reflex» for designation of the reaction of an organism arising in response to action of an incentive, force a cut corresponds to power of irritation. Unlike R. Descartes he considered that the reflex act can arise under influence not only external, but also internal stimuluses. The provisions formulated by I. Prokhaska allowed to pass from mechanistic idea of a reflex to fiziol. to understanding of reflex activity.

I. Prokhask is the author of the textbooks and guides to physiology translated to a number of languages. Its textbooks «Estestvosloviye (Manual) Human, for the Management during the Teaching» (1809 — 1810) and «Physiology, or Science about a nature human» were published in Russia (1822). It created the anatomic museums at high fur boots in Vienna and Prague, and also Scientific medical about-in in Prague (1784).

I. Prokhask was elected by the honorary member of a row foreign scientific about-in and high fur boots, including. St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy and Kazan un-that.

Works: De structura nervorum. Tractatus anatomicus tabulis aeneis illustratus, Vindobonae, 1779; De functionibus systematis nervosi commentatio, Praha, 1784; Lehrsätze aus der Physiologie des Menschen, Wien, 1797; Opera minora anatomici, physiologici et pathologici argumenti, pars 1, Viennae, 1800; Institutiones physiologiae humanae, Vindobonae, 1805; Disquisitio anatomico-physiologica organismi corporis humani ejusque processus vitalis, Viennae, 1812; Physiologie, oder Lehre von der Natur des Menschen, Wien, 1820 (Russian lane, SPb., 1822).

Bibliography: Gutmann E. Yury Prokhazka and reflex theory, Chekhoslov. fiziol., t. 1, No. 1, page 3, 1952, bibliogr.; Kruta V. Jiri Prochäska, profesor fysiologie, anatomie an oöniho lekarstvi (1749 — 1820), Brno, 1949; it, Med. dr Jiri Prochäska (1749 — 1820), Praha, 1956, bibliogr.

Century of A. Makarov.