PROGRAMMING — drawing up the sequence of the actions (program) during the performance of work connected with information processing on the electronic computer. Programming is necessary because the design of any COMPUTER allows it to carry out only a certain set of arithmetic and some other simple operations. Therefore any task intended for performance on
the COMPUTER shall be presented, eventually, in the form of the document reflecting the necessary sequence of such operations i.e. in the form of a special form of record of algorithms of machining of materials (see. Algorithm ). The made programs are entered into computer memory (see. Electronic computer ). Carrying out programs, the car provides required materials.
Originally P. consisted in record of the sequence of the elementary operations in the form of codes and sets of addresses of those cells of computer memory in which necessary information is stored (so-called programming in computer languages — in codes of teams). Further progress in area P. is connected with development of special algorithmic languages of P. by means of which it is substantially automated. Algorithmic languages as a way of an exact formulation of a task at different stages of preparation of its decision, are constructed taking into account the greatest possible simplification of record of algorithms of information processing (the solution of a task). Such languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, for economic — KOBOL, PL/I are developed for P. of scientific and technical tasks. Algorithmic languages are rather simple and quite available to doctors, engineers, economists. Knowledge of language P. facilitates direct interaction of specialists with the COMPUTER, e.g., writing of the small programs connected with receiving from the car of answers to certain questions. The languages of requests which are most simplifying communication with the COMPUTER of group of people, not being specialists in computer facilities and programming gain ground. With their help it is possible to obtain the necessary information which is stored in memory of the car (e.g., about existence of the necessary drugs in pharmacy chain, about the course of treatment of certain patients in-tsakh etc.).
Because algorithmic languages are universal, not considering design features of the specific COMPUTER, languages of «intermediate» level are developed — the ASSEMBLER languages considering features of the specific car for a cut are written programs. The item in languages of the ASSEMBLER is much more difficult, than in languages of a high level, but allow to use machine resources better. Software automated control systems (see) carry out the corresponding groups of programmers.
The term «programming» is used widely in mathematics — «mathematical programming». In this case it is about finding of an extremum (a maximum or a minimum) of some function (see. Mathematical methods ).
Bibliography: Vostryakova 3. P. Programming in language of the assembler and the EU the COMPUTER, M., 1981; Saltykov A. I. and Semashko G. JI. Programming for all, M., 1980, bibliogr.
O. I. Aven.