PROFESSIONAL SELECTION — establishment of compliance of level of health, psychophysiological features of the person, his readiness and an art to requirements imposed by specifics of conditions and character of the chosen type of work.
The item of the lake is necessary at employment, characterized by existence of such production factors which can exert adverse impact on the state of health (toxicants, dust, the ionizing and not ionizing radiation, vibration, noise etc.), and also on the work imposing special requirements to mental and physiological functions of the person (driver's and operator professions, works at height etc.). Therefore the specialists who are carrying out P. by the island (doctors, physiologists, psychologists) shall know a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions and the nature of work of persons of those professions for whom selection is made to know features of their action on an organism and to estimate a condition of those bodies and systems of an organism which are limiting and critical for each production factor.
Requirements to P. of the lake with growth of mechanization and automation of productions all increase. It is caused by the fact that work on modern productions requires special attention, operational thinking, speed and accuracy of motor reactions. Therefore in the conditions of scientific and technical progress special relevance is acquired by a problem of psychophysiological selection of the people having the necessary level of adaptation opportunities of functional systems of an organism to specific factors of the production environment. So, at selection of operators of the automated systems and nuclear power plants, drivers of transport which work is connected with high responsibility and considerable nervous tension the leading role belongs to a research of higher nervous activity (to attention, random access memory, speed of processing of information, etc.), assessment of emotional stability and general working capacity. At selection of miners, workers of metallurgical industry whose work is characterized by considerable physical tension in the conditions of the increased dust content of the air environment the greatest significance is attached to a condition of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and also level of physical effeciency.
The regulating document for the doctors who are carrying out P. by the island by medical criteria is the list of medical contraindications for employment which are given in the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR «About carrying out preliminary at revenues to work and periodic medical examinations of workers». Medical contraindications can be divided into two look: the contraindications caused by requirements imposed by this profession to a condition of these or those bodies and systems and the contraindications connected with disturbances in the state of health which can be aggravated under the influence of these working conditions.
Examples of medical contraindications can be lower the decrease in visual acuity of certain sizes which is not giving in to correction, and disturbance of solid vision — for professions with increased requirements to sight (watchmakers, mechanics-lekalytsiki, engravers, draftsmen, etc.), daltonism (see. Color sight) — for the professions demanding distinguishing of flowers (drivers of transport, assayers, commodity researchers, etc.); disturbances of vestibular function — for the professions connected with rise and stay at height; diseases of cardiovascular system and the bronchopulmonary device — for the professions connected with considerable physical tension; diseases of system of blood and a nervous system — for work with lead, benzene, sources of ionizing radiation; diseases of the bronchopulmonary device — for work in the conditions of influence of production dust etc.
Contraindications to separate professions have not decisive, but approximate value, the Crimea the doctor shall be guided in relation to specific conditions of work in each separate case.
In our country the importance is attached also to career guidance of teenagers taking into account a condition of their health. School doctors together with doctors of other specialties carry out career guidance and draw the conclusion about a possibility of work of the teenager in this or that profession. If for health reasons the profession chosen by the teenager is contraindicated to it, the doctor recommends professions or specialties in which work will not affect state of his health. So, even the initial stage of an idiopathic hypertensia at teenagers is a contraindication to the work connected with considerable physical or psychological tension; for teenagers with diseases of lungs, kidneys construction professions, work-related in the unfavorable weather conditions creating premises for an exacerbation of these diseases and their transition to more severe form are contraindicated. Big help for the correct solution of a question of professional suitability of teenagers are the lists of medical contraindications to employment or inservice training of teenagers at deviations in the state of health made taking into account a comprehensive approach to definition of professional suitability of teenagers, announced by the order M3 USSR.
At medical examination of women with the purpose P. of the lake, along with the mentioned order, it is necessary to be guided by the list of productions, professions and works with heavy and harmful working conditions on which use of work of women (No. 240/P10-3) is forbidden. According to this list of women do not accept for works which can exert adverse impact on a female body and its specific functions; the women working at such works are exempted from them with obligatory employment or retraining (the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions No. 320 from 25/1U 1978 g). Works in a number of professions mining, coal (underground works) and the chemical industry, foundry, forge and press, domain production, land works, etc. belong to their number.
At professional selection of astronauts high requirements to the state of health and physical development of candidates are imposed, special attention is paid on identification of the latent and initial forms of diseases, properties of the personality, resistance of an organism to a hypoxia, overloads, zero gravity, portability of unusual, difficult living conditions and other qualities are estimated.
Professional selection in Armed Forces is made for the purpose of identification of the persons suitable for training and for the subsequent military professional activity in peace and wartime. It is carried out during the completing of military educational institutions, during conscription and in need of various periods of military service. Allocate the following types of selection: medical, educational, social and psychological and psychophysiological. During the carrying out educational selection the level of the theoretical knowledge and practical skills necessary for training or the prof. of activity is estimated. Social and psychological selection consists in studying of moral and political qualities and an orientation of the identity of candidates. Psychophysiological selection provides assessment of professionally important properties of a nervous system, a psychomotor system, features of mental processes and other qualities which level of development defines suitability to a specific type of military professional activity.
At P.'s carrying out of the lake requirements to specific features and properties of the military personnel (selection criterion) which are defined both by the general nature of military service, and specifics of voyennoprofessionalny activity in different types and types of military forces are considered. E.g., at medical selection of pilots increased requirements are shown to health, a psychological condition, functions of a vestibular mechanism, barofunction of ears, portability of a hypoxia and differences of barometric pressure. Also psychophysiological selection with assessment of functions of a nervous system of mental processes, features of the personality is obligatory.
Selection of gidroakustik provides assessment in Naval Forces absolutely, sensitivity of the acoustic analyzer, sensitivity to changes of height and force of tone, contrast sensitivity, etc.
Medical selection is made by the military-medical commissions (see) and the medical and flight commissions (see) method expert: estimates of the state of health and physical development of the military personnel, During the studying of psychological health of candidates along with a wedge survey, a conversation, the analysis of documents are in certain cases used kliniko-anamnestic questionnaires and special techniques — Rorshakh test (see), a method of unfinished offers, Rosenzweig, etc. questionnaires — the standardized method of studying of the personality (SMSP). 16-factor personal questionnaire (16 FLO) and other techniques.
In time psychophysiological selection candidates are inspected by groups on 20 — 25 people (group inspection) and individually (individual inspection) in specially equipped classes and offices. For inspection the standardized techniques are used blank (the task is shown on the form) and hardware (examination is conducted on special devices). Blank techniques use for a research of mental processes, napr, attention («Proof test with rings». «Arrangement of numbers», «The mixed lines», etc.), perceptions («Compasses». «Scales of devices», etc.), thinking («Establishment of patterns», «Exception of concepts», etc.). By means of hardware techniques estimate time of sensomotor reactions, lability of a nervous system (on the critical frequency of merge of light flashings, etc.), force of a nervous system (on sensitivity, dependence of time of reaction on intensity of irritants, etc.), functional mobility of a nervous system (on extreme rate of performance of composite reaction of the choice from three alternatives, etc.), features of a psychomotor system (a tremor, a tepping. coordination of movements, reaction to a moving object, etc.). Standardization of techniques provides comparability of results of inspection. It consists in creation for all candidates of identical conditions, forms, an order of carrying out inspection, in use of a uniform scale of quantitative estimates. The validity of a technique is estimated by a correlation coefficient of its indicators independent criteria of development of psychophysiological properties and degrees of professional suitability after training. Reliability of a technique is estimated by stability of indicators at repeated inspections of the same examinees.
The conclusion about professional suitability is taken out by generalization of results of different types of inspection.
T. B. Popova; B. V. Kulagin (soldier.).