From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROFESSIONAL PATHOLOGY — the doctrine about occupational diseases. Items — the section of the general pathology and clinical medicine studying questions of an etiology, a pathogeny, clinic and treatment of the diseases developing at impact on an organism of professional vrednost. Allocation of these diseases of century separate category on etiol, formed the principle a basis for formation and development of Pct.

For the first time the works devoted to questions of Items appeared in 16 century. In the composition of «De re metallica» («About mining and metallurgy», 1556) G. Agricola described a number of diseases at the miners resulting from inhalation of dust. In 1532 — 1533 left the separate edition of work of Paracelsus about diseases of miners and founders. In 16 century Pansa's works (M. of Pansa) and S. Stockhusen, devoted to diseases of miners and founders of metals were published. The first systematic statement and the description of occupational diseases is given in the book of B. Ramazzini published under the name «De morbis artificum diatriba» («About diseases of handicraftsmen», 1700).

In 19 — 20 centuries of a research in the field of Pct gained further development, there were managements, special magazines began to be issued, and in 1910 in Milan the first specialized clinic of Pct was created.

In Russia the beginning of scientific developments of this subject belongs to the second half of 19 century and is connected with names F. F. Erisman, A. V. Pogozhev, E. M. Dementiev, V. V. Svetlovsky, D. P. Nikolsky.

The big contribution to theoretical development of the questions relating to a pathogeny, classification of the prof. of diseases, specific, etiological and pathogenetic methods of treatment of these diseases and their prevention to examination of working capacity and some other problems of Pct was brought by N. A. Vigdorchik, E. Ts. Andreyeva-Galanina, I. G. Gelman, I. N. Kavalerov, S. M. Genkin, M. Ya. Lukomsky, P. P. Cursors, E. A. Drogichina, K. P. Molokanov, A. M. Rashevskaya and other Soviet scientists.

Also value of works of the Soviet hygienists in the field of occupational health — V. A. Levitsky, 3 is big. I. Israelson, A. A. Letavet, L. K. Hotsyanov, etc., the occupational diseases in many respects promoting studying of an etiology and development of actions for their prevention.

The research of a pathogeny, questions of diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases is based on the data which are saved up by clinic of internal diseases (see) and other industries of medicine. At the same time the variety of factors of the production environment, the Crimea belongs etiol, a role in developing of occupational diseases, their complex and various combinations, various ways of impact on an organism etc. cause features of development and the course of these diseases that in turn defines need of special methodical approaches to researches for this area, and is equal to inspection and treatment of patients.

Along with it progress in development of Pct promoted the solution of some questions of the general pathology. In particular, on model of classical professional intoxication benzene resolved a controversial issue of possible transformation of hypoplastic process in hyperplastic. On model of lead intoxication the disturbances of difficult biosynthesis of porphyrines having major importance in a pathogeny not only this intoxication, but also some general diseases, in particular in development of zhelezorefrakterny anemia (see), porphyrias (see) are established.

Research in the field of Pct is carried out in our country by hl. obr. at research institutes and M3 laboratories of the USSR and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. The parent organization, on to-ruyu assigned functions according to the management and coordination of these researches, Ying t of occupational health and occupational diseases of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences is.

Successful problem solving of Pct in the USSR is promoted by such traditional domestic approaches to studying of clinic of occupational diseases as complexity and dynamism of the conducted researches, comparison a gigabyte. data with results wedge, observations, retrospective analysis of these dynamic researches and remote effects. In our country the wide range of theoretical problems in the field of Items is investigated, the scientific directions are created, methodical bases are developed that allowed to improve significantly diagnosis and especially differential diagnosis of occupational diseases, to expand and specify ideas of a pathogeny and its features, of development and a current of various clinical forms.

Scientific and technical progress puts forward a number of new very important and complex problems before Pct. In particular, clarification of a role of professional vrednost in development of the most widespread nonspecific polyetiological diseases which do not have markers of professional defeat is necessary. These are first of all such disturbances as neurosises, diseases of cardiovascular system, allergic diseases, etc.

A lot of work at the industrial enterprises and in policlinics according to the prevention and detection of occupational diseases is carried out by pathologists whose training in our country is carried out at departments of Pct or on special courses, including in GIDUV of the country.

In our country the «Occupational Health and Occupational Diseases» magazine is issued. In a number of foreign countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Germany, Italy, the USA, Japan) there are also clinics of Pct and the magazines devoted to questions of occupational health and Pct

See also are issued Occupational health , Occupational diseases , Professional harm .

Bibliography: Questions of professional pathology, under the editorship of A. M. Rashevskaya and L. A. Zorina, M., 1974; Questions of early diagnosis of the occupational diseases caused by influence of physical factors under the editorship of V. G. Artamonova, L., 1978; Identification of early effect of toxicants on an organism, under the editorship of X. A. Kakhn and S. Hernberg, Tallinn, 1977; Izmerov N. F., etc. Urgent problems of modern clinic of occupational diseases and their communication with the general pathology, Owls. medical, No. 7, page 3, 1979; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., M., 1973; Cardiovascular system at action of professional factors, under the editorship of H. M. Konchalovskaya, M., 1976; Work and health in the developed socialist society, under the editorship of N. F. Izmero-va, M., 1979; Friedland I. G. Value of adverse production factors in emergence and the course of some diseases, L., 1966, bibliogr.; Hagen I. Clinic of occupational diseases, lane with it., L., 1961, bibliogr.; Holstein E. Grundriss der Arbeitsmedizin, Lpz., 1969; To o-el sch F. Handbuch der Berufskrankungen, Bd 1 — 2, Jena, 1972; T e 1 e k at L. Gewerbliche Vergiftungen, B., 1955, Bib-liogr.

A. M. Monayenkova.