PROFESSIONAL HARM — various harmful factors of the production environment and labor process which in certain conditions can exert adverse impact on the state of health working and their working capacity.
The item of century cannot be considered as the phenomenon inevitable. Thanks to scientific and technical progress, implementation of preventive actions some P. manage to be liquidated century (e.g., hard physical work of navvies, page - x. workers etc.). However many P. century keep the value that is caused, as a rule, by imperfection of a techno of l. process and equipment. At the same time implementation in technology of new processes, chemical and biol, substances, emergence of the works demanding great neuroemotional pressure, contact of workers with the ionizing, laser radiation are followed by emergence of the new, earlier not meeting P. of century. According to GOST 12.0.002-80, and also the SEV standards (ST of SEV) 1084-78 production factors which are adversely influencing a human body divide on dangerous and harmful. The factor, influence to-rogo on working is considered dangerous in certain conditions leads to an injury (see. Traumatism ) or to other sudden sharp deterioration in health. The factor, influence to-rogo on working in certain conditions is considered harmful causes development of a disease or decrease in working capacity (see. Professional pathology , Occupational diseases ). Dangerous and harmful production factors are subdivided into volumetric, physical, biological factors of the production environment and psychophysiological factors of labor process.
To chemical factors the large number of organic and inorganic matters and their connections belongs. They can come to air of a working zone in the form of aerosols, gases, vapors and to get to an organism through a respiratory organs and went. - kish. path, integuments and mucous membranes. They can render the all-toxic, irritating, sensibilizing, cancerogenic, mutagen action on an organism or to influence reproductive function of an organism.
To physical factors the increased or lowered temperature, humidity and mobility of air, sharply changing barometric pressure, zero gravity belong (see). the increased levels of vibration (see), noise (see), ultrasound (see), infrasonic fluctuations (see the Infrasound) and various radiations (see. Infrared radiation, Ionizing radiation, Ultraviolet radiation), and also static electricity (see), the electromagnetic field (see), etc.
The increasing attention of hygienists is drawn by P. century biol, the nature — micro and macroorganisms, products mikrobiol. synthesis (feed additives, mikrobiol. means of protection of plants, antibiotics, hormones and other substances of the proteinaceous nature), etc.
P. the century caused by labor process, it, generally psikhofiziol. adverse factors. Dynamic and static physical overworks owing to lifting and moving weights, forced position of a body, an irrational working pose concern to them; excessive and long pressure of surrounding objects upon separate parts of a body (in particular, in joints of extremities); overload of separate systems (blood circulation, the voice device, etc.), in of h touch systems (sight, hearing, etc.); insufficient physical activity (hypodynamia and hypokinesia); excessively high rate of work. Big specific weight among psikhofiziol. Items of century occupy the psychological overloads which are observed at an intellectual and emotional overstrain, monotonous work, spasmodic work, etc.
In conditions of production of P. of century hl meet. obr. where are not observed a gigabyte. standards, operation of the untight or unscreened equipment, and also equipment and the working furniture which are not corresponding anatomo-fiziol is allowed. to characteristics of working, disturbances sanitarily of reasonable production schedules where the number of manual operations is big take place, there is no ventilation, rational work-rest schedules, etc. are not observed.
With a certain duration and levels of influence of P. of century can be an origin of the prof. of diseases (see. Occupational diseases , Professional pathology ) also can also affect the general incidence of working, lead to an aggravation or a complication of a current of a number of diseases of cardiovascular and nervous systems, a respiratory organs, a liver, etc. also to decrease in the general body resistance. Perhaps also development of the remote effects of influence.
At impact on an organism of chemical substances development of acute and chronic poisonings is possible (see. Poisonings , Poisons industrial ). Insufficient physical activity, especially in combination with great neuroemotional pressure (work of operators of operating consoles, dispatchers, drivers of transport), can adversely affect activity of all bodies and systems of an organism. The irrational working pose and an inconvenient workplace can promote developing of diseases of a musculoskeletal system. At the combined influence of various professional vrednost (noise, vibration, dust, chemical substances, etc.) summation or strengthening of their action on an organism is possible.
P.'s influence on a human body depends century on its age and a floor. So, at teenage age insufficient functional development of cardiovascular and respiratory systems can lead to more considerable functional shifts in an organism of teenagers in comparison with adults during the performance of the same hard physical activity by them. Features of development of a backbone in a growth period cause possible curvatures it at the wrong provisions of a body and steady static stresses. Performance of hard physical activity can promote development in teenagers of flat-footedness. Early the activity which is followed by permanent job costing the prof. or walking with a considerable exercise stress, can promote deformation of a basin at girls. At influence of the heating production microclimate (see), especially in combination with an exercise stress, at teenagers more expressed tension of thermal control, than at adult workers is observed. The organism of the teenager is more sensitive also to influence of cold, noise, especially high-frequency range, vibration, and also to influence of a number of chemical substances. At identical concentration of content of dust in air the pneumoconiosis arises in shorter terms at youthful age.
Due to the established adverse influence of P. of century on an organism of teenagers in our country the list of productions and professions, specialties and works at which use of work of the persons which did not reach 18-year age is forbidden is approved. The corresponding age restrictions are available also during the training of teenagers in these professions (see Health protection of children and teenagers). For the purpose of restriction of an adverse effect of P. of century for an organism of teenagers time of their stay in these conditions during a work practice (training) is reduced. The teenagers going to work or to the prof. training are exposed to obligatory medical examination (see).
At persons of mature age the forced working pose (in the bent position of a body, with frequent inclinations down, on cards) can aggravate age changes of the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular device. Age changes of a functional condition of a motor analyzer reduce endurance to intensive physical work (speed of motor reactions, an animal force decreases). At advanced age the organism is very sensitive to various P.' influence century. Action of a number of chemical substances is aggravated at disbolism and age changes of various systems and bodies.
Work of elderly people is regulated by «The law USSR on the state pensions», according to Krom in accordance with general practice men acquire the right of retirement in 60 years, women — in 55 years For the century working at productions with P. retirement for 5 — 10 years before an established period depending on P.'s character of century and a profession is provided.
Value of professional vrednost for a female body is defined by the sensitivity increased to them, and also a possible direct impact of some P. of century on menstrual and genital functions and the mediated influence through a maternal organism on posterity.
The work connected with lifting and moving weights, big physical tension, especially in a forced pose, standing, having bent, can cause damage to the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular device, disturbance of menstrual function, not incubation of pregnancy, and also to influence level ginekol. incidences. The women working in the conditions of the heating microclimate have bigger tension of adaptable mechanisms. At action on an organism of the woman of vibration symptoms of a vibration disease develop quicker, and the expressed general vibration causes disturbances of menstrual function, anomaly of provision of generative organs, patol. course of pregnancy and childbirth. Hypersensitivity of women to impact of ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields of radio frequencies, silicosis hazardous dust, lead, mercury, carbon sulfur and other professional vrednost is established.
P.'s action century on an organism of women it can be aggravated their raised in comparison with men, loading in life, with frequent contact with means of household chemicals.
Special measures, in particular a gigabyte are important for improvement of work of women. the standardization of chemical raw materials providing an exception or restriction of the substances which are negatively influencing genital function. At the organization of jobs for women are guided by state standard specifications of occupational safety standards system (see) which provide scientifically based parameters of jobs During the performing preliminary and periodic medical examinations of the women contacting to P. century participation in medical examination of the gynecologist is obligatory.
In our country there is a list of productions, professions and works with severe and harmful conditions rub yes, on which use of work of women is forbidden. The list included professions and works on 37 industries and types of productions.
The resolution of the State committee of the USSR on work and social problems and Presidium of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions No. 22/P — 1 of January 27, 1982 for women reconsidered norms of marginal loadings: at lifting and moving weights in case of alternation with other work — 15 kg; at lifting and moving weights constantly during the shift — 10 kg; the total mass of the loads moved during the shift shall not exceed 1000 kg.
Improvement of working conditions in communication by motherhood is provided with special labor protection of the pregnant women and mothers having children, establishment for them favorable work-rest schedules, providing issues on patient care by children, etc. (see Protection of motherhood and the childhood). According to the «Hygienic recommendations to rational employment of pregnant women» approved in 1979. M3 of the USSR, the workers contacting in a process of manufacture to P. century the electromagnetic and ionizing radiations, noise, vibration, a number of chemical substances, etc.), from the date of establishment of pregnancy are transferred to works without the physical tension and influence of harmful production factors.
The main general actions for the prevention of influence of P. of century on an organism equally obligatory for working any gender and age, divide on technical, organizational and medical. Among technical actions the leading value replacement of harmful and dangerous processes and materials safe or less dangerous has, improvement of technology, the equipment and conditions of its operation (including sealing or shielding of the equipment), elimination of manual operations, rational architectural and construction registration of the enterprises (a design, finishing of rooms). Such medical actions as gigabyte are not less important. assessment of the equipment and technology on stages of the pilot plants, preliminary and periodic medical examinations working and also hygienic rationing (see Standards hygienic, Maximum allowable concentrations), regular control of a condition of the air environment, levels of radiations, noise, vibration, etc. production factors.
When technical actions do not provide achievement a gigabyte. standards, protection of working is reached by reduction of time of contact them with P. century, the relevant organization of the mode of work, use of individual protection equipment and observance of additional measures of personal hygiene.
For decrease in influence on P.'s organism of the century caused by labor process, special value belongs to improvement of work-rest schedules, the correct organization of a workplace, use of functional music and production gymnastics.
For the purpose of further improvement of working conditions, preservation of health and working capacity the working awareness on P. of century at a factory is necessary for hygienists, pathologists, shop doctors, technical inspectors of labor unions which activity proceeds directly at the enterprises, and also specialists of research and design in-t in which develop and design the new equipment, tekhnol. lines and processes.
Bibliography: Influence of professional factors on specific functions of a female body, under the editorship of L. 3. Balezino, Sverdlovsk, 1978; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, etc., t. 1 — 3, L., 1976 — 1977; Clinic of diseases, physiology and hygiene at teenage age, under the editorship of G. N. Serdyukovskaya, etc., M., 1979; Improvement of working conditions of women, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, M., 1976; Health protection of women — workers of industrial and agricultural production, under the editorship of V. V. Cherna, M., 1977; The Reference book on occupational health, under the editorship of B. D. Karpov and V. E. Kovshilo, L., 1979; The Reference book on professional pathology, under the editorship of L. N. Gratsianskaya and V. E. Kovshilo, L., 1981; Tarasenko N. Yu., Ananyev B. V. and M about y to and Yu. V N. Improvement of work of workers of slow-moving professions, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Work and health in the developed socialist society, under the editorship of N. F. Izmerova, M., 1979; Living conditions and the elderly person, under the editorship of D.F. Chebotaryov, M., 1978; Friedland I. G. Hygiene of female labor, L., 1975.
N. Yu. Tarasenko, 3. A. Volkova.