From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PRODUCTION SANITATION (synonym industrial hygiene) — set of actions on the economic objects directed to implementation of specific hygienic requirements to the territory of the enterprise, production rooms, the equipment and tekhnol. to processes, lighting, natural and mechanical ventilation, sanitary household providing working, cleaning of rooms, cleaning, utilization of emissions, removal and waste disposal.

Work on P. of page is carried out by workers of SES, a dignity. - a gigabyte. laboratories of the plants and administration of the enterprises. Requirements, to-rymi they are guided, are stated in official documents of the sanitary legislation (see), a dignity. norms of design of the industrial enterprises (CH 245—71) and other normative documents. In need of them to detail in relation to specific production, to process or the equipment use industry a dignity. rules, state standard specification and OST of occupational safety standards system, norm tekhnol. design.

For development gigabyte. requirements in relation to a specific object methods a dignity are used. control of all harmful production factors (see. Professional harm ), full-scale tests of systems of ventilation and lighting, methods dignity. statistics for studying of incidence, results planned flowing a dignity. supervision (see. Sanitary inspection ) and comprehensive examinations of the industrial enterprises, data of periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination ) and dispensary observation (see. Medical examination ). During the development of requirements in relation to separate types of the production equipment are used their technical and a gigabyte. the characteristics which are contained in a dignity. passports.

All actually established a gigabyte. data are compared to marginal levels (concentration) of harmful factors (see. Standards hygienic ); the excesses of norms revealed at the same time form the basis for development and implementation of specific preventive recommendations, and the state of health of individuals and collective — criterion of priority and the sequence of implementation of recreational measures. At implementation of actions for P. of page it is necessary to consider the conducting factors of this production, adverse for health, e.g. in ferrous metallurgy — thermal radiation, in mechanical engineering — harmful substances, noise, vibration, an unsatisfactory microclimate, in the chemical industry — toxicants. Recreational actions shall be directed first of all to prevention of impact of these factors on an organism of the worker.

Development of recommendations in the area P. of page is one of functions a dignity. the doctor on occupational health, which on the basis of the revealed shortcomings in a dignity. a condition of an object gives instructions with terms of their performance; he has rights of the sanction against administration of the enterprise for a delay or failure to follow requirements imposed on them. Implementation of instructions health officer (see) is obligatory for officials, the institutions, the organizations responsible for a dignity. - a gigabyte. a condition of an object and for human health. For the purpose of control of performance of preventive actions also technical inspection of labor union, security service of work of the enterprises, the representative of Gosgortekhnadzor, departments of standardization and public organizations are involved in this activity (see. Labor protection ).

Work on P. of page begins with the choice of the platform for an object and a design of the territory; it is followed by approval of the project. In the course of flowing a dignity. supervision if necessary additional requirements to improvement of territories, the device of drains, passes are developed and implemented, to to gardening (see), to carrying out necessary dignity. actions inside sanitary protection zone (see). During flowing a dignity. supervision the specific objectives connected with shortcomings of operation and changes of an internal design of rooms are solved with increase in the output and change of its profile, exercise control of observance of standards of the area and volume on one working, behind actions for localization and spatial isolation of harmful production factors, for correct and sanitarily reasonable use of upper floors and cellars of buildings.

The important place in P. is allocated by page to ventilation, especially at reduced actual level air exchange (see) and a deviation of its parameters from design sizes. Need for additional local ventilating devices and for improvement of systems of ventilation in connection with creation of new jobs, and also with small, but essential defects of vent systems comes to light (disturbance of tightness of air ducts, integrities of shelters, change of section of cracks, stitched nozzles, etc.).

If the operated production equipment and tekhnol. processes do not answer a dignity. to rules and standards of safety of work (see. Occupational safety standards system ), dignity. the doctor defines actions for improvement of working conditions. The requirement of partial or radical change tekhnol is within its competence. process, replacement of the production equipment and immediate termination of its operation. For the period of reduction of a condition of an object in compliance about a dignity. rules working shall be provided with effective remedies of individual protection.

Gigabyte. requirements to auxiliary and household rooms are shown taking into account their structure and compliance on the area and equipment to construction norms and rules (Construction Norms and Regulations): for shower the number of shower grids, for wardrobe — number of lockers, their type, for dining rooms — number of seats decides (at the rate on change on the maximum number working). In the course of flowing a dignity. supervision requirements to a dignity are imposed. to a condition of all auxiliary and household rooms taking into account a season of year, an epidemic situation, number of working.

The most important section P. of page — development of requirements to production emissions on which performance state of environment and health of the population of adjacent territories depends. All emissions of harmful substances shall pass through treatment facilities (see. Environmental control ). In case of impossibility to utilize industrial wastes and to organize the reverse (closed) cycles special polygons for burial of industrial wastes under which territory is allocated by local authorities in coordination with bodies of the Ministry of geology of the USSR and SES are created. After allocation of the territory the location of polygons and the sizes of the sanitary protection zone are established. In the course of flowing a dignity. supervision control of the content of toxic and radioactive ingredients, observance a dignity is exercised. requirements to operation of a polygon, implementation of rules of occupational health by personnel, etc. Actions are developed on the basis of «Health regulations of design. construction and operation of polygons of burial of the neuti-lyseed industrial wastes» (1977).

See also Occupational health .

Bibliography: Kundiyev Yu. I., Chebanova O. V. and Tupchy E. P. Precautionary sanitary inspection in the industry and agriculture, Kiev, 1980, bibliogr.

L. A. Serebryany.