PROCTOLOGY (Greek prôktos an anus, a rectum + logos the doctrine) — the section of medicine studying questions of an etiology, a pathogeny, diagnostic methods and treatment of the diseases of a rectum surrounding it fabrics and a colon.
Originally P. studied diseases only of a rectum. However because a row patol, processes along with it strikes various departments of a colon (e.g., nonspecific ulcer colitis, a disease Krone of a large intestine, diffusion family polyposes, etc.), her diseases became a subject of studying of the Item too. Among the methods of treatment applied by proctologists prevail operational, but a number of diseases treat conservatively.
Congenital anomalies and malformations of a large intestine and perirectal zone (incomplete embryonal turn of a large intestine, megacolon, doubling of a large intestine, an atresia and ectopia of an anus and a rectum, dermoid and teratoid cysts, etc.), various functional disturbances of activity of a large intestine (hron, locks, some forms megacolon at adults, a syndrome of the angry gut, various dyskinesia), nonspecific inflammatory defeats of all thick or a rectum and surrounding fabrics (colitis, paraproctites), and also hemorrhoids, proctal cracks, a divertuculosis of a large intestine and its complication are within the competence of proctologists. The important place among proctologic diseases is taken by high-quality and malignant new growths of colonic and direct guts which frequency among the population of the countries developed economically tends to sharp increase (see. Intestines , Rectum ).
Diseases of direct and colonic guts were studied by doctors since ancient times, and in many large works which reached us on medicine a certain attention (Hippocrates, A. Tsels, Ibn-Xing) is paid to them. However the first special guides to P. were published only in the second half of 19 century. (I. G. Karpinsky, «Management to studying and treatment of diseases of a rectum and anus», St. Petersburg, 1870; H.Smith, «The Surgery ôf the rectum», London, 1876).
The first special medical facility for treatment of proctologic patients was created in 1835 in London (hospital St. Brand). At the beginning of 20 century specialized proctologic clinics and hospital were organized in the USA, and then in France, Denmark, Belgium, Spain and other countries. The big contribution to P.'s development was made by J. P. Lockhart-Mummery, Myles (W. E. Miles), J. Mathews, F. Quenu, A. Hartmann, etc.
In Russia treatment of proctologic patients was performed in the general surgical clinics and in departments of the large hospitals specializing in the field. A number of domestic scientists made a large contribution to diagnosis and treatment of diseases of a rectum (S. P. Fedorov, V. R. Braytsev, A. V. Vishnevsky, etc.).
Special proctologic departments in the USSR were organized in the 50th on an initiative A. N. Ryzhikh in Moscow and A. M. Amineva in Kuibyshev which created the schools of sciences which widely conducted promotion of proctologic knowledge and were the main centers of training of specialists proctologists. Since 1965 the specialized system of rendering the proctologic help to the population began to develop in the USSR. By 1980 more than 80 proctologic departments, generally in regional and republican-tsakh, and more than 500 specialized out-patient offices functioned already. The big organizational and methodical role in development of network of proctologic service and preparation for it qualified personnel belongs to the center head scientific methodically — Research in-that proctologies of M3 of RSFSR, on base to-rogo with the assistance of department of a proctology of TsIU doctors-proctologists improve the skills. Besides, preparation and improvement of proctologists is carried out at departments of a proctology Yerevan, Tbilis of sky, Kharkiv in-t of improvement of doctors, and also at advanced training courses at these and other in-ta.
Development of network of the proctologic help promotes early identification and improvement of results of treatment of a number of a serious illness of a large intestine, including cancer of this localization.
The main objectives of P. — profound studying of prevalence of various diseases of a large intestine, improvement of diagnostic methods and treatment of the most often found and serious illness of a large intestine, implementation in practice of dispensary endoscopic inspection of the contingents of the population are more senior than 45 years for the purpose of early diagnosis of new growths of a large intestine, development of methods of surgical and social rehabilitation of the persons operated concerning cancer of a rectum, megacolon, a divertuculosis, insufficiency of a sphincter of an anus, etc.
Exist two the main international scientific about-va proctologists: The international academy of a proctology (International Academy of Proctology) with the center in New York, edges since 1949 carries annually out the congresses in various cities of the world, and International Society for the Study of Diseases of the Colon and Rectum Hedrologium Collegium, about-in, combining surgeons who are interested in diseases thick and a rectum; since 1964 it carries out the congresses each 2 years.
The main modern domestic guides to P. are the four-volume «Guide to a proctology» of A. M. Aminev (1965, 1979), «The atlas of surgeries on a large intestine» A. N. Ryzhikh (1968), monographs «Cancer of a Rectum» under the editorship of V. D. Fedorov (1979), the atlas «An endoscopic research of a large intestine» under the editorship of V. D. Fedorov (1977), «Nonspecific colitis» of M. of X. Levitana, V. D. Fedorov and L. L. Kapuller (1980).
Materials of scientific research according to P. are published in central surgical and oncological magazines, in annual collections of scientific works of scientific research institute of a proctology M3 of RSFSR and the proctologic collection of RSFSR.
The leading foreign magazines on And. «American Journal of Proctology», «Diseases of the Colon and Rectum» and «Colo-proctology» are.
Bibliography: Aminev A. M. Guide to a proctology, t. 1 — 4, Kuibyshev, 1965 — 1978; A. A Zaremba. Clinical proctology, Riga, 1978; To and N-d e l and with B. L. Urgent proctology, L., 1980; Levitan M. of X., Fedorov V. D. and to the Cap of l L. L ler. Nonspecific colitis, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Laziness sh A. I. Proktologiya's kN of children's age, M., 1976; Problems of a proctology, under the editorship of V. D. Fedorov, century 1, M., 1980; Cancer of a rectum, under the editorship of V. D. Fedorov, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Red A. N. The atlas of operations on direct and thick guts, M., 1968; In the expert about n H. E. Cancer of the colon, rectum and anal canal, Philadelphia — Montreal, 1964; With a n t about r A. J. Ambulatory proc-tology, N. Y., 1952; Gabriel W. B. The principles and practice of rectal surgery, L., 1963; Goligher J. C., Duthie H. L. a. Nixon H. H. Surgery of the anus, rectum and colon, L., 1980; M and at about With h. W. Surgery of the small and large intestine, Chicago, 1962.
V. D. Fedorov.