From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PROBES (fr. sonde) — the tools intended for introduction with the diagnostic or medical purpose to natural or pathological channels and perigastriums and also for sampling of contents of these cavities for a research. In the beginning 3. were used as tools for size discrimination and the direction of the wound channel.

Diagrammatic representation of probes: 1 — 10 — bellied probes (1 — metal flexible with an olive, 2 — for the dosed narrowing of a coronal venous sine, 3 — Geselevich's fork-probe for sinking of ligatures during the bandaging of vessels in deep cavities, 4 — uterine with divisions, 5 — Bogush's probe needle, 6 — ureteric children's, 7 — surgical bellied bilateral, 8 — bellied with an ear, 9 — for tonometry of blood in cardial cavities, 10 — Kulikovsky's probe bellied for almonds); 11 — 15 — fluted probes: on the right — a lateral view, above — cross-section (11 — surgical, 12 — zhelobovaty rigid, 13 — zhelobovaty for division of commissures at operations on the bilious ways, 14 — goitrous with an opening, 15 — bent for bilious channels); 16 — for a research of supratympanic deepening; 17 — bilateral cylindrical for the lacrimal channels; 18 — bilateral conic for channels of sialadens; 19 — ear Howling - the check bellied; 20 — ear (and — acute — with a screw thread); 21 — ophthalmologic unilateral; 22 — the probe conductor for the lacrimal tubules; 23 — 26 — tines (23 — angular, 24 — bayonet shaped, 25 — crescent, 26 — bent); 27 — hollow for washing and bougieurage of frontal sinuses (on the right — a lateral view); 28 — oncological.

Emergence of new operative measures and various diagnostic testings led to creation of new designs 3., to expansion and complication of their functions. 3. happen three types: metal, elastic, made of elastomers — rubber and plasts, and combined.

Metal probes divide into three basic groups: bellied, hollow (tubular) and zhelobovaty. In stomatology, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology and oncology also sharp-pointed probes are used. Depending on an arrangement of a working part metal 3. happen: unilateral (at an arrangement of a working part on one end 3.) and bilateral (both ends workers). The main requirement to metal 3.: roughnesses on a surface shall not exceed 0,8 — 1 microns (the 10th class in accordance with GOST).

Bellied probes (fig., 1 — 10) are, as a rule, produced from rather soft metals and alloys (brass with a nickel covering or stainless chrome nickel steel). It is caused by the fact that often at introduction to the channel they need to be bent. For a research of twisting channels are used elastic bellied 3., napr, unilateral 3. for sounding of bilious channels, at a section of a sphincter of the general bilious channel (Oddi's sphincter), released by set and having an olivoobrazny head (button) from 2,5 to 6,0 mm in size. Other end of these 3. represents the octahedral handle, and on a core 3. through each 10 mm divisions are put.

3. for the dosed narrowing of a coronal venous sine (fig., 2) by means of a soft ligature the tip of spherical shape has. In set such 3. five (to dia. 1; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 mm). Geselevich's fork-probe (fig., 3) is intended for sinking of ligatures during the bandaging of vessels in deep cavities. The uterine probe with divisions (fig., 4) is widely used to a research of the channel of a neck of uterus and a cavity of the uterus, and also to measurement of length of these cavities in gynecology; divisions (a scale of 20 cm) are put on a core 3. Bogush's probe needle (fig., 5) serves for carrying out a ligature during the bandaging of vessels of a lung; on a button 3. there is an ear. At surgical bellied 3. (fig., 8) the ear is located on the end, opposite to a button; this 3. serves for carrying out tampons and drainages. Long bilateral curved 3. (fig., 6) it is intended for a research of ureters at children. Most often in surgery apply bilateral a straight line 3. (fig., 7). Unilateral 3. the same length with a head to dia. 2 mm use in a proctology for a research of fistulas of a rectum and an anus. The bellied Kulikovsky's probe bent at right angle (fig., 10) is intended for a research of lacunas of almonds.

In cardial cavities use the tubular special probe (fig., 9) representing the thin curved metal tube which is coming to an end with an olive to dia to tonometry of blood. 3 mm. On the opposite end of a tube there is a cannula for accession of an elastic tube og the device for tonometry of blood. 3. it is supplied with mandrin for cleaning of the channel. To tubular 3. belongs also hollow 3. for washing and bougieurage of frontal sinuses (fig., 27).

Fluted probes (fig., 11 — 15) in section have the form of a trench (in the drawing section 3. it is presented over their image). Surgical zhelobovaty 3. (fig., 11) release two modifications: with a button and without it; end 3. it is executed in the form of the flat plate convenient for deduction by fingers of a hand. 3. with a button it is applied in a proctology to a section on it pryamokishechny fistulas therefore in need of it it is possible to bend slightly. All other zhelobovaty 3. have a rigid structure with more massive handle since they are applied also to division of fabrics in the stupid way, and are produced from the chrome stainless steel accepting tempering. 3. zhelobovaty rigid (fig., 12) it is applied in abdominal surgery. The similar probe of the same length, but narrower, is used in gynecology at plastics of uterine tubes. Zhelobovaty 3. (fig., 13), intended for a section of commissures on it at operations on the bilious ways, on the end the opening to dia has. 3 mm for carrying out a ligature. It is widely known goitrous 3. with an opening (fig., 14) and three flutes on a working part. It serves for allocation of a thyroid gland and for carrying out a ligature under blood vessels.

Among 3., applied in otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology and stomatology (fig., 16 — 26), bellied probes are available: for a research of supratympanic deepening (fig., 16) and ear 3. Voyacheka (fig., 19). Ear 3. are carried out also acute (fig., 20, a) and with a screw thread (fig., 20,6). The last with the cotton wool wound on it serve for a toilet and greasing of cavities of an ear. Same 3. with a screw thread, but longer serve for greasing of nasal cavities and a nasopharynx, and also for greasing (anesthesia) of voice folds.

For sounding of a nasal duct use a set of two-sided cylindrical probes of 6 sizes (fig., 17) with a plate to fingers in the middle. Conic two-sided probes (fig., 18) serve for sounding and bougieurage of channels of sialadens. Unilateral conic probes are intended for expansion of the lacrimal openings (fig., 21); they are let out in set of three pieces with a diameter of tip from 1,2 to 2,0 mm. For adaptation of the ends of the broken-off nasal duct at recovery operations set from three bilateral 3 serves. with a working part of a ring-shaped form (fig., 22) to dia. 0,8 mm; on the end 3. there is an ear for carrying out thread.

In stomatology by means of sharp-pointed 3. — bent (fig., 23), bayonet shaped (fig., 24), crescent (fig., 25) and angular (fig., 26) — defects of enamel investigate and make sounding of entrances to channels of fangs. A working part them is made of a needle wire, and the handle — from brass. At an acute onkol. 3. (fig., 28) a working part from stainless steel is inserted into the wooden handle.

Elastic probes are used to sampling of contents from gastric cavities and a duodenum (see. Duodenal sounding , Sounding of a stomach ), and also at a research of blood vessels and hearts (see. Catheterization of heart ).

Sterilization of metal probes is carried out by the usual methods accepted for sterilization of surgical instruments. Sterilization elastic 3. it is similar to sterilization of catheters and buzhy, made of elastic materials (see. Sterilization ).

Bibliography: Krendal P. E. and Kabatov Yu. F. Medical merchandizing, M., 1974.

Yu. F. Kabatov.