From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PRIMATOLOGY MEDICAL (Latin primatus a seniority, a primacy + grech, logos the doctrine) — one of the scientific directions in experimental medicine, a task to-rogo is studying of pathology of the person in experiences on monkeys.

The scientific foundation of use of monkeys in medical researches is laid by I. I. Mechnikov in his theoretical works («Etudes about human nature», «Darwinism and medicine», «A world view and medicine», etc.) and pilot studies (reproduction for the first time on monkeys of syphilis, typhoid, proteyny infection of babies, etc.). Modern P.'s period of m began in the 20th 20 century when there were necessary conditions for its development (sufficient level of experimental medicine, penetration of the ideas of Darwinism into medicine, etc.). Later (since 60th) thanks to large achievements in the field of biology the new data confirming similarity of the person and different types of primacies that served wide use of monkeys in medical experiments were obtained.

Special biol. similarity of monkeys to the person (see. Monkeys ) provides a possibility of successful studying of a current patol. and biol. the processes inherent to the person, as many of ordinary laboratory animals owing to them morfofiziol. and biochemical differences for the solution of a number of questions of pathology of the person are unsuitable. It is the most essential during the studying of problems of cardiology, a viral hepatitis, malaria (especially resistant forms of plasmodiums), the diseases caused by so-called slow viruses and also in the field of physiology of a brain, reproductive biology and pathology, an onkovirusologiya, a teratology, etc.

In experiences on monkeys great success in a research of poliomyelitis, yellow fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, sypny and a typhinia, cholera, measles, a leukosis, a viral hepatitis, a chicken, experimental neurosises and neurogenic pathology of the person is achieved; the Rhesus factor of blood was open, the role of a hypophysis in an ovarian and menstrual cycle is shown; methods of culture of fabric, some surgeries, etc. are improved.

The results received in experiments on monkeys publish nearly 20 special periodicals, including the international «Magazine of medical primatology» («J. of Med. Primatol.»).

In the Soviet Union development medico-biol. experiments on monkeys occurs on the basis of large primatol. the centers, the oldest of which is the Sukhumi nursery of monkeys of an award of the Labour Red Banner Research in-that experimental pathology and therapy of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (it is created in 1927). From 70th researches began to be conducted on the monkeys who are specially divorced in scientific primatol. centers. Such centers are created in the USA, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, France, the Netherlands and other countries. In the USSR branches of the Sukhumi nursery of monkeys in the districts of Adler and Tamysh are organized, the release of monkeys from nurseries in the woods wildlife areas under Sukhumi and Tuapse for the purpose of their cultivation under natural conditions began.

Increase in scales of use of monkeys in medicobiological experiments and in the industry for testing of efficiency and safety of vaccinal and other biological products and pharmaceuticals was led to emergence of considerable difficulties with deliveries of these animals from the countries of their natural dwelling. The sharp reduction of number of primacies of different types caused by destruction of an area of dwelling of monkeys in connection with economic activity of people is the reason of it. Thereof construction and the organization of nurseries for cultivation of monkeys, including and in the countries of their natural dwelling extended.

Inaccessibility and high cost of the majority of species of primacies, and also really arising problem of preservation (survival) of species of primacies led to adoption of the principle of admissibility of experimental use of monkeys only for the solution of global problems and in the absence of a possibility of the choice of other models.

Bibliography: B. A wingnuts. Some results and perspectives of use of monkeys in medicobiological experiments, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 8, page 3, 1977, bibliogr.; I. I. swordsmen. Etudes about human nature, M., 1904; it, About Darwinism, M. — L., 1943; it e, Chosen works on Darwinism, M., 1958; Friedman E. P. Laboratory double of the person, M., 1972; it, Medical primatology — a new stage of history of experimental medicine, in book: Results and perspectives issled. on an ist. medical, under the editorship of Yu. P. Lisitsyn and G. R. Hook, page 213, Tashkent, 1980; Moor-Jankowski J. Coming of age of medical primatology, J. med. Primatol., v. 2, p. 321, 1973.

B. A. Wingnuts, E. P. Friedman.