PRAUSNITTSA-KYUSTNERA REACTION ( Page W. Prausnitz , it is mute. bacteriologist and allergist, 1876 — 1963; H. Kustner, is mute. the gynecologist, 1897 — 1963) — reaction of a passive sensitization of skin. In 1921 K. Prausnitts, passively sensibilizing itself the site of skin of a forearm by intradermal administration of blood serum of the colleague Kyustner (H. Kustner) which had an allergy to fish received at the subsequent injection of offending allergen in an injection site of serum characteristic reaction of urtikarny type. Thereby K. Prausnitts showed fixing of a serum factor responsible for a sensitization in skin of the healthy recipient, and a possibility of his identification at introduction to the sensibilized site of skin of corresponding allergen (see).
The principle P. — To. the river consists in passive transfer on skin of healthy faces of hypersensitivity with blood serum of patients with atopic diseases (see. Atopy ) with the subsequent reproduction in this site of skin of immediate allergic reaction at administration of offending allergen. Reaction is caused by existence in serum of sick allergic antibodies — reagins (see. Antibodies ), belonging generally to IgE and partially to IgG.
PRAUSNITTsA-KYuSTNERA REACTION apply for diagnosis of allergic reactions of immediate type when testing on the patient is undesirable, in rare instances for diagnosis of a medicinal allergy; for studying of properties of reagins (this method showed their thermolability, inability to get through a placenta and high sensitivity to reducing agents; a long time of PRAUSNITTsA-KYuSTNERA REACTION was the most reliable method of definition and measurement of concentration of reagins); for detection of allergenic (antigenic) activity of various fractions of allergens; for establishment of the general cross reacting allergens (for this purpose apply test of exhaustion — administration of allergen is repeated until positive reaction disappears. If on other close allergen also there does not step reaction, then these two allergens are from the point of view of an allergy identical). The item — To. rubles use for definition of credits of blocking antibodies, for studying of passability of food-borne allergens through mucous membranes went. - kish. a path at administration of per os allergen.
At P.'s statement — To. the river of 0,05 — 0,1 ml of blood serum of the patient with allergic diseases enter vnutrikozhno to the healthy person. In 24 hours into the same place enter specially picked up dose of allergen (0,025 — 0,1 ml). This interval — the most optimum term necessary for a passive sensitization of skin of the person though positive takes were received when it varied from one minute to several days. In nek-ry cases of P. — To. the river was positive at simultaneous introduction to skin of the recipient of blood serum and allergen. In 20 min. at positive reaction in test sites there are a blister, a hyperemia, an itch. The item — To. the river is estimated on intensity of skin inflammatory reaction (see. Skin tests ). The blood sera used in reaction shall be sterile and yield a negative take at statement of Wassermann reaction (see. Wasserman reaction ). It is not recommended to use blood sera of the patients who had malaria, hepatitis. It is necessary to remember that P.-K. the river which is carried out in public is connected with the known risk of developing of serumal hepatitis. Layton (L. L. Layton, 1966) suggested to use as recipients of subhuman primates.
Are known modifications The item — To. river. So, it can be positive when allergen is entered vnutrikozhno far from an injection site of serum. At the same time allergen gets to the location of reagins in the hematogenous way. Allergen can be entered not vnutrikozhno, and it is inhalation or is enteral, napr, at food allergy (see) it is entered through a mouth or rektalno to healthy recipients, the Crimea in 24 hours before was vnutrikozhno entered by blood sera of patients with hypersensitivity to the corresponding food-borne allergen. In the skin prepared thus in 10 — 15 min. (sometimes in 1 — 2 hour) after reception or introduction of food the characteristic local reaction with hypostasis and a hyperemia demonstrating that intact antigenic material quickly arrives through mucous membranes develops went. - kish. path.
At so-called return P. — To. rubles originally enter allergen, and then blood serum of the patient into skin, at the same time the interval between introductions shall not exceed 15 min. The return P. — To. the river is of great importance when in an organism complex allergen, napr, medicine and protein, a microbic product and protein is formed.
In a wedge, practice of PRAUSNITTsA-KYuSTNERA REACTION because of danger of transfer of serumal hepatitis is used seldom. For definition of IgE-antibodies it is used radioallergosorbent method (see), for definition of blocking antibodies — its modification. PRAUSNITTsA-KYuSTNERA REACTION matters for the solution of research tasks.
Bibliography: Ado A. D. General allergology, page 136, 142, M., 1978; The Allergy and allergic diseases, under the editorship of E. Rayk, the lane with Wenger., t. 1, page 116, Budapest, 1966; Gushchin I. S. Immediate allergy of a cell, page 32, M., 1976; To r and y p JI. Clinical immunology and an allergy, the lane with English, page 98, M., 1966; Berry J. Century of a. Brighton W. D. Familial human short-term sensitizing (IgG S-TS) of antibody, Clin. Allergy, v. 7, p. 401, 1977; Cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of allergic disorders, ed. by S. Gupta a. R. Good, N. Y., 1979; Prau-snitz C. u. Kiistner H. Studien iiber tJberempfindlichkeit, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig., Bd 86, S. 160, 1921.
A. I. Ostroumov.