PRAKSAGOR (Praxagoras, apprx. the 4th century BC) — the Ancient Greek doctor, less famous Praksagor Starshego's grandson — the pupil Hippocrates. Praksagor lived and treated patients on the lake. Braids. It it was held by succeeding generations of scientists in remembrance. So, in 30 (i.e. more than three hundred years later) on the lake. Braids still there was its statue. Praksagor's works reached us only in the form of fragments and quotes in compositions of ancient Roman doctors and Encyclopaedists Tseliya Avrelian, K. Galen, Ruff of Efessky, A. Tseljs, and also the Byzantine doctor Oribaziya. Main works of Praksagor: «About anatomy», «The book about forecasts», «About symptomatology», «About the course of diseases». According to Galen, Praksagor considered a brain an appendage back, and heart — the central body organ and the place of stay of soul; he established distinction between veins and arteries (the term «arteries» is attributed to it), considered that veins contain blood, and arteries — air that all nerves originate from heart because nerves, according to Praksagor, no other than thin branchings of arteries (what Galen resolutely did not agree with). In the field of pathology Praksagor was a supporter of the humoral theory. Developing Hippocrates's doctrine about pathology of four liquids, it described their 11 various states. Praksagor saw an etiology in dominance or damage of any liquid. During the definition of the forecast it considered weight of a disease and protective forces of an organism. In treatment widely applied bloodlettings, a diet and artificially caused vomiting. Among Praksagor's pupils there were Filotim, Ksenofon from the Braid and Gerofil — one of founders of the Alexandria medical school.
Bibliography: Kovner S. G. History of medicine (Meditsina from Hippocrates's death to Galen inclusive), Kiev, 1888; Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Halbband 44, Bd 22, S. 1735, Stuttgart, 1954; Steckerl F. The fragments of Praxagoras of Cos and his school, Leiden, 1958.
T. S. Sorokina.