POSTVACCINAL ALLERGY (Latin post after + vaccinus cow; an allergy) — the increased reaction of an organism to administration of preventive drugs.
Introduction to an organism of preventive drugs (subcutaneously, intramusculary, vnutrikozhno, aerogenno and through a mouth), as a rule, comes to an end with formation of specific immunity (see). At the same time in a human body specific appear antibodies (see) cellular mechanisms of immunity are also activated that leads to increase in resistance to this infectious agent and at the same time the level of nonspecific reactivity of an organism to other activators. At the heart of P. and. the specific reaction between antigen and an antibody and antigen and sensitized cells arising at repeated administration of antigen lies. Manifestations of this reaction depend on extent of increase reactivity of an organism (see), character and quality of preventive drug (the live or killed, virus or bacterial vaccine, serum of animals or the person), frequency rate and intervals of administration of drug.
A calendar of compulsory preventive vaccinations against inf. diseases, acting in the USSR (see. Immunization, calendar of inoculations ), provides immunization of children against tuberculosis (see), poliomyelitis (see), tetanus (see), diphtherias (see), whooping cough (see), parotitis (see), measles (see), etc.
Each preventive drug, even the monovalent vaccine, contains several antigens which cause reaction of cells of special bodies of protection of an organism and the corresponding reaction of all cells of an organism irrespective of the fact which they perform function in it.
In nek-ry cases primary administration of antigen causes the typical clinically expressed allergic reaction. All manifestations of P. and. it is possible to divide into two groups — allergic reactions of immediate type and allergic reactions of the slowed-down type (see. Allergy ). Both types of these reactions under the known conditions can be observed at the same time and even on the same antigen. At use of preventive drugs of reaction of P. and. immediate type arise more often at administration of heterogeneous serums with preventive (e.g., prevention of tetanus) and to lay down. the purposes (e.g., rabies treatment, flu), at repeated administration of viral, bacterial, fungal antigens and protein fractions of helminths. P.'s reactions and. immediate type, as a rule, cause finely divided antigens at certain methods of introduction them in an organism. They arise at the person at introduction of bacterial and viral antigens in cases of emergence in their serum of antibodies of the class IgE. Bacterial polysaccharides can also give positive skin allergic reactions of immediate type.
Allocation of mediators of allergic reactions of immediate type (see. Mediators of allergic reactions ) can be not only as a result of reaction of antigen and an antibody (see. Antigen — an antibody reaction ), but also at primary introduction of protein fractions of helminths, and also action of toxic products of bacteria on mast cells and basophiles. In this plan components of nek-ry species of bacteria, by data A. K. Akatova (1977) — streptococci and stafilokokk which react with nek-ry classes of immunoglobulins of the person and animals at the first meeting are of special interest.
P.'s reactions and. the slowed-down type arise after repeated introduction to an organism of bacterial anatoxins with adjuvants, AKDS-vak-tsiny (the adsorbed pertussoid and diphtheritic and tetanic), corpuscular vaccines and after single or double introduction of live virus rickettsial and bacterial vaccines. At the heart of P.'s reactions and. the slowed-down type interaction of the antigen vaccine entered into an organism with previously sensibilized T lymphocytes lies. The positive skin reaction of the slowed-down type arising at tuberculosis, a malignant anthrax, a tularemia, a tick-borne encephalitis and other infections is often identified with a condition of artificial immunity. In some cases such reaction of skin to antigen can arise at the animal who is in a condition of hypersensitivity to bacterial toxins. If to this animal to enter a nonlethal dose of bacterial exotoxin, then it will die. I. L. Krichevspy and N. V. Galanova (1934) called similar type of hypersensitivity infectious allergy (see). Sometimes the vaccines used at immunization with high allergenic properties do not cause immunity, and sensibilize an organism. So, in 1948 in Kyoto (Japan) for the purpose of immunization against diphtheria it was used insufficiently neutralized anatoksinony its First introduction did not cause allergic reactions, but sensibilized children to diphtheritic toxin. Secondary introduction of a diphtherial anatoxin caused later 1 — 2 day a disease of 606 children with typical intoxication, from to-rykh 68 died. At patients the negative Schick's test demonstrating that in their blood there was an antitoxin in the credits, sufficient to neutralize a small dose of toxin was revealed; however neutralization of toxin did not happen since the organism was in a condition of hypersensitivity to diphtheritic toxin like an infectious allergy across Krichevsky.
Introduction to an organism of a live influenza virus as a vaccine involves reproduction it in cells of respiratory tracts. Conditions for formation of a condition of hypersensitivity to an influenza virus are created. In blood there are specific antibodies against this virus, but immunity is not created since the organism a long time is in a condition of hypersensitivity to it.
As a vaccine against scarlet fever streptococcal toxin which was included as the 4th component in vaccine AKDS was applied. Administration of drug provided the expressed immunity against tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough, but immunity against scarlet fever was not received since scarlatinal toxin causes a sensitization of an organism like an infectious allergy.
Administration of preventive drugs is strictly regulated.
The principles of treatment of the allergic diseases caused by microbic allergens include specific and nonspecific methods (see. Desensitization ).
See also Allergic diseases .
Bibliography: Akatov A. K. Protein A of golden staphylococcus, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 5, page 5, 1977; Beklemishev N. D. and With at x about d about e-in and G. S. Allergiya to microbes in clinic and an experiment, page 260, M., 1979; The Immunotherapy at an allergy to microbes, under the editorship of N. D. Beklemishev, page 260, Alma-Ata, 1980; Kravchenko A. T. Nature of allergic reactions of skin, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 7, page 79, 1966; Kravchenko A. T. and Galanova N. V. Third factor of artificial immunity, Immunity and allergy of cells, page 198, M., 1948; To r and the p e of a fi-ska y And. JI. and Galanova N. V. New ways of studying of immunity and an allergy at infectious diseases, Zhurn, mikr., epid. Pi immun., t. 14, No. 5, page 698, 1935; M and yansky A. N. Immunologic and not immunologic mechanisms in displays of an infectious allergy, in the same place, No. 5, page 14, 1979; Firsanov V. I. and Kravchenko A. T. Infectious allergy, in the same place, No. 12, page 78, 1969; Kurokawa M. a. Murata H. On the toxicity of the «toxoid» preparation responsible for the Kyoto catastrophe in 1948, Jap. J. med. Sci. Biol., v. 14, p. 249, 1961.
A. T. Kravchenko.