PORTUGAL, the Portuguese Republic — the state in the southwest of Europe, in the western part of Iberian Peninsula, on Azores and the lake of Madeira (in the Atlantic Ocean). The area is 92 thousand km 2 , including the area of islands is 3,4 thousand km 2 . Population of 9,87 million people (1979). The capital — Lisbon (with suburbs apprx. 1,5 million zhit., 1979). Administrative division — 22 districts which are divided into areas, the last — on arrivals. Ofits. language — Portuguese.
According to the Constitution of 1976 the head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to unicameral parliament — to Assembly (Meeting) of the republic; executive — to the Council of ministers headed by the prime minister who is appointed the president.
The item — the agrarian-industrial country. There are large reserves of mineral raw materials (tungsten, tin, uranium, pyrites, lead, copper, a kaolin, marble, etc.). Traditional industries are textile, sewing, tanning and shoe, paper. Specific weight of the metallurgical, electrotechnical, chemical, petrochemical industry and mechanical engineering increases. Primary branches of agriculture are wine growing, gardening, grain farm; the livestock production and fishery is widespread. During agrarian reform in yuzh. regions of the country agricultural cooperatives are created.
99% of the population — Portuguese. On a census of 1970, the woman made 52,7%. Average population density 107 people on 1 sq.km. The natural movement of the population in 1978, on ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 17,1; general mortality 9,8; natural increase 7,3. Child mortality 38,9 for 1000 live-born (1975). The expected duration of the forthcoming life of 65,2 g for men and 72,4 g for women (1975).
In structure of causes of death in in 1975 the leading place was taken by diseases of the blood circulatory system — apprx. 40% of all cases; it is inexact the designated states — 15,5%; new growths — 12,3%; diseases of a respiratory organs — 9,2%; accidents — 7,15%; diseases of digestive organs — 5,9%.
Among inf. diseases in 1977 743 cases of a typhoid, 438 — a brucellosis, 10 — a malignant anthrax were registered. Carrying out inoculations reduced incidence nek-ry inf. diseases. Diseases of viral encephalitis, tick-borne rickettsioses, malaria, a leushmaniosis, schistosomiasis, dochmiasis were observed. In 1977 447 cases of early syphilis, 857 — a gonococcal infection and 76 cases of other veins are registered. diseases.
Health care in the country Min-in of social affairs directs, a cut includes general directorates of health care and BC, the central commission of medico-social services, research department and planning. National school of public health care, Ying t of tropical medicine and National in-t of health care are subordinated to Min-vu. To general directorates Ying t of motherhood, National in-t of tuberculosis, Ying t are subordinated to the help to patients with a leprosy, Ying t of psychiatry, National by in-t gematol ogiya, Ying t on problems of a family and social security.
In 18 districts the bureau of public health care (besides, 4 such bureaus are created on Azores and the lake of Madeira) direct health care, each of to-rykh is headed by the doctor who is at the same time the head of the center of health. Bureaus are subordinated-tsy and other medical institutions of the district. The organization of medical aid, planning and evaluation of the work of medical institutions is assigned to bureau.
In districts and arrivals functions apprx. 300 municipal bureaus of public health care, the Crimea also the local centers of health are subordinated municipal-tsy. After the revolution of 1974 much attention was paid to development of these centers; it was planned that in each district and arrival there will be the center of health.
In the country there are public and private institutions of health care, the system of insurance medicine is developed, edges in 1972 covered 80% of the population. According to article 64 of the Constitution of 1976 in the country the national health service is gradually entered to make medical aid available to all population.
In 1975 in the country would be 474 on 35 062 beds, from them 21 222 beds would be in 142 state. In total in-tsakh, mental health facilities and in the centers of health in 1975 there were 52 268 beds, or 59,5 on 10 000 zhit. (in 1950 security with hospital beds made 54,6 on 10 000 zhit.). The antitubercular service has 103 clinics, 20 mobile diagnostic offices, 41-tsey and sanatorium. The extra hospital help appears out-patient departments of BC, the centers of health and private medical practitioners. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of the country not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
Ying t of motherhood located in Lisbon has 2 regional centers (in Porto and Coimbra) and coordinates security services of motherhood and the childhood, supports creation of private institutions of health protection of mother and child and will organize specialized courses for improvement of knowledge in this area of doctors and nurses. Prenatal consultations and consultations of newborns are held in the local centers of health.
The service of school hygiene is carried out by parish doctors at elementary schools and the doctors subordinated to Min-vu of science and education at high schools.
In the territory of the country there is a significant amount of mineral springs: sulphidic, carbonic, sulphidic uglek isly, chloride sodium, etc.; some types of water contain radon (to 48,4 nkyuri/l). Temperature of the majority of sources from 30 to 70 °, and nek-ry, napr, on the island San Miguel, to 98 °. In the country functions St. 70 balneological and climatic resorts, the most popular of to-rykh are Pedrash-Salgadash, Vidagu, Gerez, Kaldas-de-Aregos, Estoril, Monkao, Taypash, Monte Real, Kaldas-de-Filgeyra, San Pedru-du-Sul, Karvalyal, Kash-kaysh, Kaldas-de-Reina, etc. On the coast of Atlantic climatic stations Lizhboa (apprx. Lisbon), etc. are located; on the lake of Madeira — the climatic resorts of Funchal, Kamash, Santa Ana, Santa-Crush, on the lake San Miguel — the balneological seaside resort Miguel.
In the country pharmaceutical industry develops. The general directorate of health care provides control of quality of pharmaceuticals.
In 1976 in Portugal 720 midwifes, 18,4 thousand nurses of various level of training worked apprx. 12 thousand doctors (12,3 doctors for 10 000 population), apprx. 500 dentists, 345 dental technicians, 3650 druggists and St. 3 thousand assistants to the druggist (19,0 for 10 000 population). Doctors Coimbra and Porto, and druggists at School of pharmacy in cooperation with National prepare on medical f-takh of high fur boots in Lisbon, ii-volume of health care.
Scientific research in the field of medicine, except the in-t subordinated to Min-vu of social affairs is carried out in high fur boots, at to-rykh the scientific research institute of bacteriology, ophthalmology, oncology, forensic medicine, a malariology, medical pedagogics, psychology and psi-
hiatriya, and also in in-those Pasteur in Lisbon function. In Coimbra and Porto function in-you climatology and a hydrology. Physicians of the country are combined by Medical association and Portuguese pharmaceutical about-in.
Bibliography: Health services in Europe, page 213, Copenhagen, 1975; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 322, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual 1978, v. 3, p. 49, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1979, p. 5 a. o., Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1980, p. 5 a. o., Geneva, 1980; World of learning, 1973 — 1974, v. 2, p. 1116, L., 1973.
V. B. Tsybulsky.