PORT — the site of the seashore, the lake, a water reservoir or the river and the adjacent water square, naturally the pl which are artificially protected from nervousness and equipped for the parking and service of vessels, performance of reloading and other operations.
The volume, character and specifics to lay down. - the prof. and a dignity. - epid, activity of healthcare institutions of P. define P.'s types and types of the serviced vessels and the ships, and also such making elements P.: the water area (water space for the parking of vessels) and the coastal territory with port constructions on it — moorings and piers, the manufacturing, administrative, ship-repair, auxiliary enterprises, the station, sanitary protection zones, medical institutions, etc.
P. are subdivided on civil general purpose and military, in to-rykh there is a processing of a flow of all types of cargo, both specialized — passenger and trade, fish, coal, oil, forest, etc.; on the district of service — on the international ports and ports of internal (local) value.
The item is provided with access railway tracks, highways, city transport; it coordinates with the plan and a city architecture, and also with systems of city water supply, the sewerage, etc.
In the territory of P. (sea, river) or nearby there are ship-repair enterprises. For handling works special sites, moorings or the districts of P. are allocated: general loads (in a container), containers, bulk cargoes (coal, the wood, grain loads, etc.), flammable loads (oil, etc.). Width of sanitary protection zones in P. depends on a type of loads (raising dust, poisonous, sanitary and dangerous, etc.).
Air pollution and P.'s water areas can adversely influence crews of vessel and the ships, port workers, passengers and the population which is directly adjoining to the Item. Owing to contact of the population and port workers with the crews of vessel and passengers arriving from places, unsuccessful in epidekhmiol. the relation, infections can be brought. Infections can be brought by the rodents living on the arriving vessels and also with various load.
Dignity. - epid, the service P. controls performance of the actions directed to the prevention of environmental pollution at handling operations (vessels and the ships are forbidden to merge overboard waste and fecal, oil-containing or toxic waters or to throw out waste). Special attention dignity. the service P. turns on the close check behind water handling and P.'s water use and the ships of various types. Precautionary and current sanitary inspection (see) in the course of design, construction and P.'s operation carries out lavny sanitary epidemiologiche-skoye management M3 of the USSR or federal republics according to acting a dignity. rules for sea, river and lake ports and piers of the USSR. In sea P. or river basins a dignity. supervision is assigned on basin or port (on river — linear)
of preventive actions in P. is directed to SES on the water transport which exercise also supervision of all types of vessels and the ships during their parking in P. Organization to the prevention of delivery to the country by the water transport and the fishery fleet of plague, cholera and other quarantine infections.
Depending on the category and number working in P. health centers will be organized. For medical service of crew personnel, P. workers and sudoremzavod, and also members of their families the network of basin, port (linear) BCs, policlinics, dispensaries is created. In the same place there is a free qualified medical aid to crews of the foreign vessels standing in the Soviet
Items SES on the water transport and the sanitary and quarantine departments which are their part, antiplague port stations in the work are guided by Rules on sanitary patrolling of the USSR from a drift and distribution quarantine and others inf. diseases, dignity. rules and instructions for all types of vessel (see. Sanitary patrolling ).
Development of scientific questions of hygiene of the water transport is carried out Research in-volume of hygiene of the water transport and its branches. See also Water transport .
Yu. M. Hundred.