POPULATION CENSUS — specially organized collecting the demographic, economic and social data characterizing at a given time or the period of all residents of the country. Sometimes include in the concept «population census» also the report, processing and the publication of such data. The item of N, carried out for receiving data on number, structure and accommodation of the population but the territory of the country, is the difficult operation demanding comprehensive scientific justification, long preparation and the accurate organization.
the First attempts of the accounting of the population belong to an extreme antiquity and are connected with emergence of the states. Regular P. of N began to be carried out in 18 century. In the USA their beginning belongs to 1790, in Sweden — by 1800, in Great Britain, France, Denmark, Norway — by 1801, in Austria — by 1818, in the Netherlands - by 1830, in Switzerland — by 1837. The first P. of N were carried out to long terms, covered not all population. Their program had limited number of characteristics. Regular P.' carrying out N belongs to the middle 19 in,
In Kievan Rus' the accounting of the population and iodvorny censuses were carried out incidentally in 10 — 12 centuries, in the Novgorod Russia — in 15 century, in the Moscow Russia — in 17 century. Peter I (1718) decree laid the foundation for regular P. by N in Russia. They were carried out with the purpose to determine the number of the podatny population by submission by landowners of «revizsky fairy tales» (lists). Till 1857 ten such audits, to-rye, despite shortcomings were carried out, were the main source of information about residents of the country and played a positive role in development of the accounting of the population. At the beginning of the 60th 19 century a number of accounts and P. of N in the certain cities and provinces is carried out. The first and only general P. of N in pre-revolutionary Russia was carried out in 1897. After Great October socialist revolution P. of N was carried out in 1920, 1923 (only urban population), 1926, 1937 (data of this census were rejected), 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979. The population census of 1920 took place in conditions of intervention and civil soldiers and could not capture all territory of the country. In its program much attention was paid to professional and production questions. It was combined with page - x. census and short accounting of the industrial enterprises. The population census of 1926 captured all territory of the USSR. Its materials were the basis for development of the first five-year plan. The all-Union population census of 1939 was conducted on high scientific level. The main achievements of the country of victorious socialism found reflection in its materials. Materials of the All-Union census of 1959 showed that, despite the significant damage caused to the national economy by war, our country achieved significant progress not only in recovery of the national economy, but also in further construction communistic about-va. The last All-Union P. of N was carried out as of January 17, 1979
the Technique and the organization
the Existing international practice allocates the following main parties of modern P. of N: the state character and centrality, i.e. carrying out a census in an official order the government of the country; coverage of a certain territory which borders are strictly established by the governmental decree or the decision of statistical bodies; generality and reliability which are understood as coverage of the population without admissions and without double account; an edinovremennost — all data concerning each inhabitant are fixed as of strictly certain moment and in a limited span; identity at registration, i.e. obtaining data directly from each inhabitant; unity of the program and unity of methodology of the accounting of the population and system of documentation for the territory of the country; processing and the publication of data on geographical or administrative regions of the country and on the main demographic and social features.
Items of N are carried out periodically, as a rule, once in a decade, usually by a bypass of residences and collecting inundated information about each inhabitant. At the same time the principle of self-determination is observed, i.e. data register according to interviewed, but not from their documents. There are two methods of carrying out a census: a method of poll, at Krom counters write down oral answers, and a method of so-called self-calculation, at Krom inhabitants fill in the registration documents which are in advance distributed to them. The method of self-calculation is more economical, it gives the chance to reduce number of counters and terms of a census. However the method of poll is more widespread. It has certain advantages before method of self-calculation since provides quality and completeness of data more stoutly. Modern censuses are conducted to short terms, within several days or weeks. For P.'s carrying out of N choose time when the population is less mobile (in the USSR — in the winter). For exact calculation of the population the moment — most often on the eve of date of a census is determined midnight certain, so-called critical: been born after and the dead up to this point do not consider. At P.'s carrying out of N specification of category of the population is important, a cut it has to be considered — cash or constant, or both. That concerns to the cash population, a cut in a moment of rupture is in this settlement, irrespective of time of stay is (temporary or constant). Those who constantly live in this settlement treat resident population irrespective of whether there were they in a moment of rupture of a census in this point or temporarily were absent.
In the majority of the capitalist countries at a population census only the resident population, in the USSR and in the majority of the socialist countries — both categories of the population since it provides fuller coverage of the population and big accuracy of a census is considered.
The program of a census
P.'s Problems N are implemented in its program which is understood as a circle and contents of the data collected at a census. The questions determined by the program and answers to them are fixed in the main form called by the schedule which supports, as a rule, the following groups of questions: 1) address questions (a surname, a name, a middle name rewritten and the place of its accommodation); 2) it is general demographic questions (a sex, age, a state in marriage); 3) questions of an ethnic origin (a nationality or nationality, the native language, knowledge of other languages, and for foreigners also nationality); 4) questions of education and training (ability to read, write, the got education if studies, then where); 5) the questions characterizing social and economic structure of the population (occupation or other source of a subsistence, the place of work, a social status); in the capitalist countries the question of unemployment and its duration concerns to the same group. In programs of a census of some countries there are also questions of migration (the birthplace, the place of a former residence, etc.), religion (religion), questions for studying of tendencies of birth rate and shchr. In a number of the countries along with ii. N are carried out censuses of housing stock and living conditions of the population. The N of the data who are brought together at P. form a basis for preparation of tables with distribution of inhabitants on these or those signs and combinations of signs. Forms of such tables are called the program of development of materials P. of N and are defined during preparation of the program of the forthcoming census.
Rather wide program, use of a sampling method, use of the mechanized processing of materials is characteristic of modern P. of N (as a rule, on the COMPUTER).
The program of the All-Union population census of the USSR included 1979 16 questions, from them on 11 all population (complete census), answered 5 questions — 25% of resident population (a selective census). The program of a complete census included the following questions: the attitude towards the head of the family, category of the population (constant or cash), a sex, age, a state in marriage, a nationality, the native language, other language of the people of the USSR which the citizen masterfully uses education, type of educational institution, in Krom studies, a source of a subsistence. The selective census contained questions of the place of work, class in the place of work, public group, duration of accommodation in this settlement, for women — about number of the born children. Besides, at a census the information about the persons at working-age occupied in house and personal subsidiary agriculture was received. P.'s feature of N of 1979 is inclusion in its program of a question to the woman of number of the children born by it that provided more exact data on birth rate, its dynamics, level and the factors defining them. The combination of the answer to this question to other answers of the schedule promotes more exact forecasting of number of births. Other feature of this census — a possibility of use of the form of the schedule for direct input of its data in the COMPUTER.
The program P. of N does not contain a number of very important issues in many capitalist countries, and results of a census are developed so that to shade social contradictions capitalist about-va, especially concerning class, national composition of the population and the extent of unemployment. In the socialist countries materials P. and. hl are used for the benefit of all people. obr. for planning of development of the national economy. The information about the population is basic data for management of all spheres of life about-va. Data on number and structure of the population on gender and age are considered, in particular, during the planning of further development of health care, for justification of quantity, power and placement of network of BC, policlinics, maternity hospitals, women's and children's consultations, SES, sanatoria and rest houses, for the organization of preparation of medical shots of various specialization etc. The information about children of preschool age is necessary for planning of network of preschool institutions and preparation of the corresponding number of tutors and service personnel. The information about the population is base for definition of the main indicators of health of the population and activity of healthcare institutions. In particular, the large complex studying of the state of health of the population which is carried out with these P.' involvement in N of 1970 formed a scientific basis for calculation of standards of need of the population of the country for different types of medical aid.
Results of the All-Union population census of 1979 and their value for health care. P.'s results of N are usually published in a look preliminary and then full results. Results of a census of 1979 give the chance to estimate dynamics of population of the country and change of its structure. Despite serious consequences of three wars, the population of the USSR from 1913 for 1979 increased by 103,2 million people, and in 9 years which passed after the census of 1970 — on 20,7mln. the people (8,6%) were also reached by 262,4 million persons. The increase in population of federal republics is various: in RSFSR, USSR, BSSR population increased in 9 years almost by 6%, in the republics of the Soviet Baltics — for 7 — 9%, in the Moldavian and Kazakh SSR — respectively for 11 and 13%. The increase in population in the Azerbaijani SSR — for 18%, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic — for 22% and the republics of Central Asia — for 20 — 31% is high. These distinctions in an increase in population are caused by hl. obr. character of natural movements of the population (see). Six republics with high birth rate in 9 years provided 34,5% of an increase in population of the country. The structure of the population changed. The share of urban population from 18% in 1913 increased to 32% in 1939, to 48% in 1959 and to 62% in 1979. In comparison with 1970 the urban population increased by 27,6 million people, including owing to a natural increase on 12 million people, and .migratsionny processes and transformation of rural points in city by 15,6 million persons. The number of villagers decreased in comparison with 1970 from 105,7 to 98,8 million people (by 6,5%). The republics with a bigger share of urban population: Estonian SSR (70%), RSFSR (69%), Latvian SSR (68%), Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (66%), USSR (61%) and Lithuanian SSR (61%). The census of 1979 showed that for the first time the pure gain of the population of big cities (St. 100 thousand people) in connection with migration of country people to the cities appeared more increase in population of all country (21 million people against 20,7 million people). The number of big cities in 9 years increased with 221 to 273. The cities with the population more than 500 thousand zhit. in 1917 was only 2, in 1979 — 45, from them 18 cities with the population of St. 1 million people (against 10 cities in 1970). Growth of number of the cities and the number of urban population puts forward new tasks before health care, and first of all in the field of nature protection, purity of free air, the soil, reservoirs, improvement of working conditions and life.
Materials of a census give the chance to track dynamics of number of the people belonging to various classes and social groups, to find out how the structure working under the influence of industrial development of the USSR changes. These data are of great importance for health care in connection with development of the differentiated standards and various organizational forms of medical aid for working in different industries and agriculture. They illustrate also growth of culture. Bright reflection is found in them by progress of the Soviet Union in national education, in training of highly qualified personnel for all industries of the national economy. The gap in education level between urban and country people is reduced. Essential value for preparation of national medical shots these P. have N about national structure of the population. Special value for bodies of health care has age and sex structure of the population, being reflection of changes in birth rate and mortality, and for certain territories — and in migration. It forms a basis for different development of standards of medical aid. The census of 1979 considered 122,3 million men and 140,1 million women, i.e. the number of women exceeds the number of men on 17,8 million. In 1959 owing to big losses of male population during the Great Patriotic War this distinction made 20,8 million persons. The gap in the number of men and women is gradually reduced. In 1979 the percent of men in the population made 46,6, women — 53,4 against 45 and 55 in 1959. By 1979 the ratio of men and women aged up to 50 years was generally leveled. Decrease birth rate (see), observed in all economically developed countries, leads to increase as a part of the population of a share of elderly people. In 1939 in the USSR persons at the age of 60 years are also more senior made 6,8% of all population, in 1959 — 9,4, in 1970 — 11,8%.
Increase as a part of the population of elderly people leads to structural change of incidence and causes of death, in particular to increase in a share hron, diseases (diseases of the blood circulatory system, malignant new growths, etc.)*. It requires close attention to studying of pathology of an elderly and senile organism and the organization of medical aid to elderly people, and also strengthenings of actions for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and malignant new growths. In a number of federal republics with high birth rate the share of children is rather higher as a part of the population that requires special attention of bodies of health care to to protection of motherhood and childhood (see).
On the basis of materials of a census and data of the current account tables of mortality, or survival are formed (see. Life expectancy , Mortality ), used at perspective calculations of number and structure of the population, during the studying of incidence and mortality and development of actions for improvement of health of the population of the USSR. On the basis of tables of mortality the indicator of average duration of the forthcoming life — one of the generalizing indicators of health and social and economic living conditions of the population is calculated.
Materials P. of N demonstrate progress of our country in construction of communism and have important political value.
Bibliography: All-Union population census, 1970, under the editorship of G. M. Maximov, M., 1976; The All-Union population census — a matter of national importance, M., 1978; About z at l about in A. I. Population censuses of the globe, Chronological tables, M., 1970; The Course of demography, under the editorship of A. Ya. Boyarsky, M., 1974; The Population of the USSR, according to the All-Union population census of 1979, M., 1980; About preliminary results of the All-Union population census of 1979, Vestn, statistics, No. 5, page 67, 1979; Post-war population censuses, M., 1957.
V. A. Bystrova, V. K. Ovcharov.