From Big Medical Encyclopedia

POPULATION BIOLOGY (late lat. populatio, from armor. populus people, population; biology) — the section of biology studying manifestations of life activity at the population level.

To P.'s formation. increase in interest in population as to the smallest evolutive unit promoted (see. Population ). Item. quite often is considered as the section of evolutionary biology — the synthetic discipline investigating mechanisms of evolutionary processes on microevolutionary (to a look) and macroevolutionary (above a look) levels. Components of P. the population genetics, population ecology, a microsystematics, chorology (the doctrine about distribution of organisms on an area), evolutionary morphology etc. are. The period of formation of these disciplines which began in 60 — is the 70th 20 century, is not completed and therefore a conceptual framework of P. yet. was not established.

Use of population approach allowed to approach studying of a complex structure of the natural centers of infections in a new way. In particular it is established that borders of population are, as a rule, various for the owner, a carrier and a parasite or a pathogenic microorganism, for the intermediate and final owner; also mechanisms of self-control of populations of each of the types entering in are various parazitotsenoz (see) and in natural biogeocenosis (see).

Methodical approaches of P. allow to understand patterns of development of human community more deeply. With their help study structure and demography of human populations, variability morfol., biochemical, and fiziol, signs, including resistance to various diseases, features of ecology of separate populations etc. (see. Population genetics , Ecology ).

Bibliography: Dubinin N. P. Evolution of populations and radiation, M., 1966; Timofeev-Resovsky N. V., Baneberries of H. N and Apple in A. V. Short sketch of the theory of evolution, M., 1977; Timofeev-Resovsky N. V., Yablokov A. V. and Glotov N. V. A sketch of the doctrine about population, M., 1973; Shilov I. A. What logo - physiological bases of the population relations at animals, M., 1977.

H. N. Vorontsov.