POPULAR MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA — the special encyclopedic edition concerning medicine and health care intended for hygienic education and sanitary education of the population.
Increase dignity. cultures and distribution medical - a dignity. knowledge is an important measure for public health care (see. Health care , Sanitary education ). «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care», the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) provided further improvement of forms and methods of sanitary education, increase in scientific level of popular medical literature, wide use for promotion medical - a dignity. knowledge of mass media that is especially important in connection with implementation in practice of health care of measures of primary prevention (see. Prevention primary ). Creation of the fundamental popular scientific encyclopedias orienting the population in questions of a rational way of life, the prevention of diseases and the correct behavior in case of their emergence is an effective remedy of the solution of these tasks.
Predecessors of popular medical encyclopedias should be considered medical sections of universal encyclopedias. The release of the independent medical encyclopedias for laymen which do not have medical educations was connected with the general tendency to specialization of encyclopedic editions (see. Encyclopedias medical ), and also with particular interest of the population in medical knowledge. Having inherited from universal encyclopedias of tradition of a spravoch-nost and the comprehensive description of concepts, the first popular medical encyclopedias were under construction as popular scientific reference books and contained a set of recommendations to lay down. character. The last was connected also with a certain influence widely published in the 2nd half 19. in — the 1st quarter is 20 century old which were in great demand of various «doctor books», «medical books for the house and a family», etc. in to-rykh various advice was given to lay down. character (from «house means» before use of medicines and infusions of the herbs containing the strong beginnings). Other, preventive orientation popular medical encyclopedias began to get later in connection with improvement of forms and methods a gigabyte. educations and promotion medical and dignity. knowledge, and also awareness of danger of self-treatment and uncontrolled use of pharmaceuticals. However, the question of extent of reflection in the modern popular medical encyclopedia of data to lay down. character it is not solved finally though potential danger to the general reader of the redundant data relating to medical practice is obvious and does not demand further proofs. Popular medical encyclopedias of new type are intended generally for the gigabyte is more whole. educations and gigabyte. education of the population. They contain purposefully selected data on the organization of the rational mode of work, rest, food necessary for each person, on care of children and sick relatives, on measures for strengthening of the health and the prevention of various diseases, on the correct behavior in a case, and also during the rendering before arrival of the medic of first aid injured and suddenly sick.
In the USSR the systematic edition of popular medical encyclopedias (PME) began in the 60th. The first release of PME from 1961 to 1970 sustained 7 editions (1 — the 5th prod. in 1961 — 1966, hl. editors A. N. Bakulev and F. N. Petrov; 6th and 7th prod. in 1967 and 1970, hl. editors A. F. Xie-renko and F. N. Petrov); the general circulation made them St. 1,2 million pieces. Among 1900 articles of this release a certain attention was paid to questions of personal hygiene, occupational health and food, physical training, physical culture and sport, health care; in special articles rules of care of newborns and babies, for patients are stated. At the same time the first release of PME represented as envisioned and to creation the typical popular scientific reference book owing to what the preventive orientation of its materials was expressed obviously insufficiently: the vast majority was made by articles about diseases, medicines, resorts, in to-rykh recommendations to lay down contained. character (treatment of diseases, essence of action, indication, routes of administration of medicines, medicinal plants and even dose, etc.). Articles about diseases contained recommendations about their prevention, but only in the most general form. Articles of a theoretical cycle (about bodies, functions of an organism, etc.) had purely help character and, therefore, providing the reader with information necessary for a conscientious attitude to preventive recommendations could not carry out completely a task.
Though the first release of PME was well met by the reader, existence in its articles of data which could be used for self-treatment, and also insufficient concreteness of preventive materials sparked fair criticism of the medical public. Attempts of elimination of these shortcomings replacement or partial completion of separate articles did not yield essential results. Radical review of scientific and methodical bases of PME, the principles of selection of material and creation of articles, giving of the encyclopedia of a publicistic orientation was required. Such review was carried out in the course of preparation of the second release of PME.
Second release of PME (1979, hl. the editor B. V. Petrovsky, circulation by 1982 is brought to 450 thousand copies) it was conceived as the fundamental popular scientific work about health of the person, conditions and factors of his preservation and strengthening. Much attention was paid to promotion of a rational way of life, the mode of work, rest, a hardening, physical culture and sport, fight against addictions and disturbances in life of requirements of hygiene. Questions of personal hygiene are widely reflected, specific recommendations about leaving and physical training of children of all age groups, and also elderly people are made; the necessary place is allocated to hygiene of sex life and sex education, a balanced diet, storage and preparation of foodstuff; to the hygienic maintenance of the dwelling, clothes, footwear, hygienic and decorative cosmetics.
The number of articles in PME of the second release in comparison with the first was cut by half. At the same time the edition contained much more information on various sections of medicine. Problems of theoretical medicine (materials on anatomy, physiology, biology, genetics, immunology, etc.), not only the data of preventive character broadening horizons of the reader, but also containing are more widely presented (e.g., about the factors which are adversely influencing this system of bodies, function or process and the measures promoting elimination of these factors or weakening and neutralizing their destructive action). It is more placed data on health care, the rights of citizens of the USSR for health protection, on activity of the CPSU and socialist state in this area.
In articles about diseases the main place is taken by data on the reasons and risk factors of their emergence, and also on the correct behavior, the mode and a nosotrophy in case of its treatment in house conditions. Medical recommendations are made only in the volume necessary for first-aid treatment before arrival of the medic or at life-threatening states (an attack of stenocardia, assistance at a faint, etc.). Clinical articles of new release of PME orient the reader to a continuous communication with the doctor for the solution of questions of individualization of measures for strengthening of health and treatment. About harmful effects of self-treatment, uncontrolled use of pharmaceuticals, uses of not enough checked methods of treatment it is reported as in special articles (Sorcery, Self-treatment, Abuse of drugs, etc.), and in articles about groups of pharmaceuticals, separate diseases, etc. The second release of PME has success in readers and deserved positive reviews of the medical public. In 1981 — 1982 its transfer and the edition in Greece is made.
I. P. Leads, A. M. Grindings.