POLYVINYLPIRROLIDONE — synthetic polymer; is a basis of blood-substituting liquids; (C 6 H 9 NO) n :
The item — white or yellowish powder with a specific smell, is hygroscopic, we will easily dissolve in water, 95% alcohol and chloroform, is practically not ether-soluble, is besieged from solutions by acetone and sulfate salts of ammonium and sodium. Pier. the weight (weight) of P. is defined by conditions of polymerization. Low-molecular drugs P. may support fractions about a pier. weighing up to 45 000, middlemolecular — to 100 000 and high-molecular — to 150 000. It is for the first time synthesized in Germany to Reppa (W. Vera) in 1939, in the USSR — M. F. Shostakovsky, P. S. Vasilyev, etc. in 1954 P. is indifferent for an organism, is not split by enzymes, allocated in not changed look. Speed of removal of P. entered intravenously its pier is defined. it is powerful: drugs about a pier. weighing 6000 — 12 000 are completely removed by kidneys in 3 — 24 hours, middlemolecular fractions about a pier can be late in an organism within several months, and. weight St. 150 000 it is long are late in fabrics. At peroral introduction of P. it is not soaked up in blood, and almost completely removed through intestines, without rendering irritant action.
Prepared on the basis of the Item. blood-substituting liquids (see) have the expressed adsorptive properties: connect various pharmaceuticals (sulfanamide drugs, analgetics, antibiotics, etc.); form complexes with toxins and toxicants, promote carrying out them through a renal barrier.
On the basis of P. the following three types of drugs are developed: low-molecular, middlemolecular and high-molecular. Low-molecular apply to desintoxication (see. Disintoxication therapy ). Haemodesum and neohaemodesum (USSR), periston N (Germany) representing 6% the water solutions containing chlorides (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium) and Neocompensanum (Austria) containing 5% of glucose instead of salts concern to them; Enterodesum (USSR) used for peroral introduction for the purpose of binding and removal of toxicants from went. - kish. a path at poisonings, a row inf. diseases, etc.
Drugs with a molecular weight of 25 000 — 40 000 — periston (Germany) and kompensan (Austria) — widely applied during World War II as antishock means, after them replaced with more effective drugs dextran (see). Drugs of the third group about a pier. weighing 30 000 — 60 000 use for prolongation of effect of medicines (see. Drugs of the prolonged action ), generally analgetics and antibiotics since connected by polyvinylpirrolidone, they keep in an organism longer that allows to extend terms between their introduction.
Complexes P. with iodine apply intravenously to desintoxication, and also outwardly for sterilization of skin since in a complex with P. iodine loses the irritating, cauterizing action and completely keeps bactericidal. Items use also during the tabletting as a binder, during the freezing of blood as a protective component. Items, marked radioisotopes of hyzone or iodine, apply to studying of distribution of P. in an organism, the speed of its removal, and also to diagnosis of disturbances of permeability of a vascular wall in gastroenterology, cellular membranes in hematology, to quantitative definition of current of a lymph.
Bibliography: Vasilyev P. S., etc. Comparative characteristic of drugs of polyvinylpirrolidone of various molecular weight, Works of 12th Mezh-dunarodn. kongr. on a modulation, blood, page 56, M., 1972; Vinograd-Finkel F. R. and Kiselyov A. E. Urgent problems of freezing of blood, Probl, gematol, and modulation, blood, t. 15, No. 4, page 3, 1970; The Guide to the general and clinical transfusiology, under the editorship of B. V. Petrovsky, page 199, M., 1979; Sidelkovskaya F. P. Chemistry of N-vinylpyrrolidone and its polymers, M., 1970; With at z d and l of e in and V. V., etc. A research of influence of polyvinylpirrolidone on prolongation of effect of novocaine in an experiment, Eksperim, hir. and anesteziol., L 3, page 70, 1971; With at z d and-leva V. V., etc. Efficiency of drugs of polyvinylpirrolidone at burn intoxication, the Stalemate. fiziol, and Eksperim, rubbed., No. 5, page 67, 1978; Wes-se 1 W., Schoog M. Wink ler E. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), its diagnostic, therapeutic and technical application and consequences thereof, Arznei-mittelforschung, Bd 21, S. 1468, 1971, Bibliogr.
V. V. Suzdaleva.