POLYVINYLCHLORIDE — the high-molecular product of polymerization of vinyl chloride, is toxic; it is used for production of ware, linoleum, imitation leather, film materials, etc.
by P. — white powder about a pier. it is powerful (weighing) 6000 — 160 000, has good dielectric properties; it is steady against effect of moisture, acids, alkalis, solutions of salts; it is combined with many plasticizers. P.'s toxicity is caused by existence in its structure nezapolimerizovavshegosya monomer, character of the additives (plasticizers, stabilizers, catalysts, initiators, etc.) entered into polymer at its synthesis and processing and also allocation of products of aging of polymer (hydrogen chloride).
Items receive by polymerization of monomer of vinyl chloride. Owing to insufficient automation of a technological process of manufacture of P., disturbance of tightness of the equipment and existence of manual operations during the cleaning of reactors, loading of polymer in bags air of a working zone can become soiled vinyl chloride and dust P.
Acute poisonings with vinyl chloride are shown by dizziness, nausea, loss of orientation, a lack of coordination of movements. At an early stage hron, intoxications are observed by vinyl chloride vegetovascular, neurotrophic and touch frustration of distal departments of extremities as Reynaud's syndrome (see. Reynaud disease ), vegetative polyneuritis (see), a sklerodermopodobny symptom complex with the phenomena of an acro-osteolysis (see. Scleroderma ). Development is characteristic of late stages encephalopathies (see) with preferential defeat of trunk structures as Gayet — Vernike. Changes of internals, systems of blood are expressed unsharply, have secondary character and are caused by pathology of trunk and hypothalamic departments of a brain. Cases of death from malignant new growths of the workers who had production contact with high concentration of vinyl chloride are abroad revealed.
At P.'s processing in products air of production rooms can become soiled dust P. and stabilizers (during the mixing of components), vinyl chloride, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrocarbons — at thermal processing of mixes. Acute poisonings of P. under production conditions do not meet. Hron, intoxications are possible at persons, is long contacting to phthalate plasticizers; they are shown in the form of a vegetative polyneuritis with the phenomena of astenisation, vascular disorders and changes of c. the N of page, diseases went. - kish. path, upper respiratory tracts, decrease in excitability of vestibular and olfactory analyzers, skin sensitivity, changes in immune system of an organism. At influence of considerable concentration of dust P. development hron, pneumonia and a slight pneumosclerosis is possible.
Maximum allowable concentration of polyvinylchloride in air of a working zone of 6 mg/m3. Construction polymeric materials on the basis of P. plasticized by highly volatile phthalates in the first months of operation can emit in air dibutyl phthalate, hydrogen chloride, vinyl chloride and other substances in the concentration rendering irritant action on a mucous membrane of upper respiratory tracts.
Prevention of the prof. of poisonings in P.'s production comes down to the maximum sealing tekhnol. the equipment and communications, automation of management tekhnol, process, mechanization of purification of polymerization reactors of crusts of pitch, to the maximum removal of residual amounts of monomer of vinyl chloride from polymer, to ensuring effective work of vent systems, use of individual protection equipment (the filtering gas masks of brand A, the isolating gas masks during the cleaning of walls of reactors, antidust respirators during the packaging of polymer). Actions for improvement of working conditions at P.'s processing in various products shall be directed to replacement in a compounding of polyvinyl chloride mixes of dibutyl phthalate by less flying plasticizers (dioctyl phthalate, didodecyl-phthalate); gigabyte. standardization of prescription components of mixes; replacement of lead stabilizers on less harmful (calcium stearates, zinc); organization of threading of production; installation of the tight high-performance equipment with conducting process of the operating console; kapsulyation of the equipment and sources of release of harmful substances; providing effective ventilation (see).
The prevention of adverse effects of contact of the population with products on the basis of P. is reached by restriction of content of monomer of vinyl chloride in polymer, plasticizers in finished products and preliminary a gigabyte. assessment of materials and products.
Bibliography: Antonyuzhenko V. A. A vinylchloride disease — hydrocarbon neurotoxicosis, Bitter, 1980; And N-t about N yu to O. K. Comparative hygienic assessment of the polyvinyl chloride materials applied in housing construction, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 9, page 92, 1973; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, etc., t. 1 — 3, L., 1976 — 1977; Occupational health in chemical industry, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, etc., page 224, M., 1967; Milkov L. E., etc. The state of health of the workers who are affected by plasticizers of phthalates in production of imitation leather and films, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 6, page 14, 1969; T and-mof Nevsky L. A., Ivanova N. I. both Balynina E. S. Toksikologiya of ethers of au phthalic acid and their hygienic regulation, in the same place, JVa 3, page 25, 1980; Filatova V. S., etc. - Hygienic assessment of working conditions and the state of health of workers in production of block polyvinylchloride, in the same place, No. 1, page 3, 1974; M and 1 t about n i C. and. lake of Vinylchloride carcinogenesis, current results and perspectives, Med. d. La-voro, v. 65, p. 421, 1974; S z end e B. o. Pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of polyvinylchloride dust, ibid., v. 61, p. 433, 1970.
V. S. Filatova.