From Big Medical Encyclopedia

POLING Laynus (Pauling Linus Carl, sort. in 1901) — the American chemist and the physicist, the progressive public figure, the member of National academy of Sciences of the USA, the foreign member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958), the Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry (1954), the Nobel Prize for the world (1962), the International Lenin award «For Strengthening of the World between the People» (1970).


Ended in 1922. The Oregon college, in 1925 California Institute of Technology; it was improved at universities of Europe (1926 — 1927). Taught and conducted scientific work in Californian technological in-those (1927 — 1969, the prof. since 1931), the prof. of chemistry Stanfordsky un-that (1969 — 1974), the member of council Ying-that sciences and medicine of L. Polinga (since 1973).

The main works of L. Polinga are devoted to studying of structure of crystals and molecules, the nature of chemical communication, use of methods of quantum mechanics in chemistry, to problems of molecular bases of processes of life activity. A number of works is devoted to biochemistry (studying of structure of proteins). L. Poling put forward the concept of the «molecular diseases» caused by disturbance of synthesis of this or that protein or formation of functionally incomplete proteins. Showed that drepanocytic anemia is connected with existence in erythrocytes of abnormal hemoglobin.

L. Poling is a consecutive fighter for peace. It one of initiators of the Paguoshsky movement, the author of the address of the American scientists to the U.S. President with the requirement about the immediate termination of tests of nuclear weapon (1957), and also the petition of similar contents to the UN with signatures of 9 thousand scientific different countries.

Works: The nature of a chemical bond, the lane with English, M. — L., 1947; College chemistry, San Francisco, 1951; General chemistry, San Francisco, 1954; Molecular diseases, evolution and gene heterogeneity, in book: The horizons biochemical, the lane with English, under the editorship of JI. A. Tumermana, page 148, M., 1964 (sovm, with Tsukerkandl E.); Redoxon and health, the lane with English, M., 1974; The General chemistry, the lane with English, M., 1974; Chemistry, the lane with English, M., 1978 (sovm, with Poling P.).

V. O. Shpikiter.