From Big Medical Encyclopedia

POLICAR Albert (Policard Albert, 1881 — 1972) — French gistofiziolog, the doctor of medicine (1903), the doctor of natural sciences (1912), the member of National academy of medicine (1942), the full member of Academy of Sciences of France.


Ended in 1903 Mr. of Voyenno - medical academy in Lyon. From 1918 to 1950 headed department of histology Lyons un-that. The great influence on A. Polikar's formation as the scientist was rendered by his collaboration with R. Lerish, the first monograph of A. Polikar «Evolution of military wounds» (1918) became result of what.

All main works A. The polypenalty on pathology of a cell, physiology and pathology of connecting fabric, a liver, lymphoid system, on a gistofiziologiya and a histopathology of lungs at pneumonia and a silicosis, etc. penetrates the idea of communication of structure and function. The research of processes of ossification and reparation of a bone allowed A. Polikar to establish a role of a periosteum at a reparation of subperiostal changes. An important stage in understanding of activity of kidneys were its works on a gistofiziologiya of uric system (in particular, on physical. - to chemical mechanisms of calcification of kidneys at the person). In the researches A. Polikar used essentially new methods, such as a mikroinsenira-tion (burning of cells for identification of topography of inorganic compounds), fluorescent, fazovokontrastny and polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction, a submicroscopy, etc. Its textbook on physiological histology from 1922 for 1950 sustained 5 editions. A. Polikar was one of the first researchers who estimated great opportunities for use of marked atoms for studying of biological processes. The big role in formation of modern ideas of immune system and dynamics of inflammatory reactions was played by A. Polikar's works on studying of an adenoid tissue as substrate of an immune response and thymus gland as body - «owner» of immune processes.

Works: Le poumon, structures et mecanismes h G gtat normal et pathologique, P., 1955; Traite de microscopie, Instruments et techniques, P., 1957 (sovm, with other); Submicroscopic structures of cells and fabrics it is normal also of pathology, their physiological and pathogenetic value, the lane with fr., L., 1962 (sovm, with Bo Sh. A.); Physiology and pathology of lymphoid system, the lane with fr., M., 1965; Physiology of normal and pathological connecting fabric, the lane with fr., Novosibirsk, 1966 (sovm, with the Call And.); Inflammatory reactions and their dynamics, the lane with fr., Novosibirsk, 1969; Elements of pathology of a cell, the lane with fr., M., 1970 (sovm, with Besse M.); The Bronchopulmonary device, structure and mechanisms is normal also at pathology, the lane with fr., Novosibirsk, of 1972 (sovm, with Ghali P.); Molecular cytology of membranes of a zooblast and its microenvironment, the lane with fr., Novosibirsk, 1975; The Surface of a cell and its microenvironment, the lane with fr., M., 1975.

Bibliography: Katsnelson 3. S. Albert Policar, Arkh. annate., gistol, and embriol., t. 66, No. 4, page 125, 1974; Roche J. Policard A., Bull. Acad. Nat. Med., v. 156, p. 333, 1972.

G. A. Frank.