POLAND, Polish People's Republic, Party of Russian Taxpayers — the state in Central Europe. The area is 312,7 thousand km 2 . Population of 35,58 million people (1980). The capital — Warsaw (1,6 million zhit., 1980). Administrative division — 49 voivodeships consisting from the county which share for 2345 gmin and include 814 cities. The largest cities: Lodz — 852 thousand zhit., Krakow — 693 thousand zhit., Wroclaw — 598 thousand zhit., Poznan — 536 thousand zhit., Gdansk — 442 thousand zhit., Szczecin — 385 thousand zhit., Katowice — 350 thousand zhit. (1979). Ofits. language — Polish.
In July, 1944 in released by parts of the Soviet Army and Army of the Polish Mr. Helme the Polish committee of national release which proclaimed the program of construction of the people's democratic state was created. In January, 1947 the elections to Legislative diet which crowned a victory of the democratic block headed by the Polish united Labour Party took place. In 1952 the diet adopted the constitution of the country, according to a cut Poland was proclaimed the republic of workers, the state of national democracy. In 1976 the changes reflecting sovr, a stage of development of the country are made to the constitution. The Party of Russian Taxpayers — the participant of the Warsaw Treaty Organization, the member of SEV.
The Party of Russian Taxpayers — the socialist state. The supreme body of the government and legislature is the Diet of the Polish People's Republic which elects the State Council performing in breaks between the sessions of Diet functions of the joint head of state. Executive authorities is the Council of ministers. The leading force in the country — the Polish united Labour Party operating in the union with the United peasants party and Democratic party.
St. 30% of the territory of the country occupy plains, average height of 173 m above sea-level. On Yu. the countries — mountains, the highest point — Rysa's peak (2499 m) in Tatra mountains. Climate — midlatitudes, passing from sea to midland.
For years of public authority Poland from agrarian turned into industrially developed country. Many times over its economic potential increased, the industry is created sovr». Primary branches are the mechanical engineering and the chemical industry, and in agriculture production of grain and livestock production.
The natural movement of the population
St. 98% of the population of the country — Poles. By the number of the population Poland takes the 7th place in Europe. Average population density 114 zhit. on 1 km 2 (1980). The natural movement of the population (tab. 1) is characterized a nek-eye by increase in birth rate, noticeable decrease in child mortality and stabilization of a natural increase. Average life expectancy in 1977 made for men of 69 years, for women of 75 years; in comparison with 1952 it increased for men on 10,4 g, for women for 10,8.
In structure of incidence, as well as in the majority of other European countries, diseases of a respiratory organs, the blood circulatory systems, malignant new growths and injuries prevail. Thanks to broad performing vaccination of the population systematic decrease in incidence nek-ry inf is observed. diseases (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, typhoid, measles). However still serious problem is represented by prevalence of viral diseases, such as flu, a viral hepatitis, epidemic parotitis (tab. 2).
In the 70th decrease in incidence, by tuberculosis with 12,7 in 1970 to 7,7 on 10 000 population in 1978 was observed (10,4 at men, 4,9 at women). New cases of tuberculosis most often come to light at aged people 40 years are more senior. Decrease in incidence of malignant new growths with 171,5 in 1970 to 164,0 in 1978 takes place a nek-swarm (on 100 000 population). A little the number of diseases of the blood circulatory system increased. Incidence of mental diseases significantly does not change: on 100 000 population in 1975 436,1 cases, and in 1978 — 448,2 were registered.
In structure of causes of death the leading place is taken by diseases of the blood circulatory system and malignant new growths (tab. 3).
The organization of health care
Health care in Poland has the state character, and rendering medical aid free, the right to health protection is guaranteed by the Constitution. Questions of health protection Min-in of health care and social security knows. Since 1975 it is entered; the health system including three levels — institutions of primary (local) level, voivodeships and regions. At each level of healthcare institution and social security combine in the uniform center.
At the local level (in the cities * gmina with the population of 30 — 150 thousand, the people) out-patient and urgent * medical aid, and also the stationary help with the main specialties are carried out by the joint centers of medical service. The ambulatory care is given by the local principle to country people in health centers, and gorodskomuv; district clinics, in to-rykh doctors of the main specialties (the regional doctor, the pediatrician * the gynecologist, the stomatologist), patronage nurses and workers of social security work. With population of 3 — 5 thousand people in the cities (in 1978 on average 4,6 thousand people) and 3 — 6 thousand people in the village (in 1979 on average apprx. 4 thousand people) work at the medical site the regional doctor, the dentist and paramedical staff. Primary medical aid to children is rendered by the pediatrician who services 1 — 2 of the general medical the site, and the obstetric and gynecologic help to women — the gynecologist (one on 3 — 4 general medical sites). Working at the enterprises receive medical aid in the out-patient clinics created at them and in local industrial consultations. In primary medical aid it is engaged apprx. 1/3 total number of doctors. Specialized medical aid appears in clinics and specialized departments of BC.
Voyevodsky combined-tsa, stationary departments, specialized out-patient clinics, diagnostic departments and department of acute medical aid, and also the voyevodsky center of social security are a part a cut, is the second level in rendering medical aid to the population. Its functions include rendering medical aid in the most difficult cases and the consulting help local to lay down. to institutions. At voyevodsky also specialized centers of medical aid, napr, mother and the child, mental health, pulmonology, the representing hospital and polyclinic complexes of the corresponding profile would will be organized. All medical institutions submit to directly administrative authorities of the voivodeship.
Clinics of medical in-t, and also clinics of scientific research institute of a medical profile which are directly subordinated to Min-vu of health care and social security treat regional medical institutions. They render specialized medical aid to the population of the region combining several voivodeships.
In the Party of Russian Taxpayers there are also departmental medical institutions for assistance to workers. - of transport, Min-va of internal affairs, Min-va of national defense, etc.
Stationary medical aid to the population would be carried out at all levels in which are a part of the joint centers of medical service. Security with hospital beds in 1978 made 66,8 beds on 10 Ltd companies of the population, including 56,2 beds in multi-profile-tsakh the general type. Specialization of bed fund is presented in tab. 4.
Level of hospitalization in 1978 was equal 119,4 cases for 1000 of the population; the average duration of stay in a hospital made 4,5 days, and annual average employment of a bed — 311,0 days.
Out-patient poliklinicheska I help in 1978 was given in 5936 out-patient clinics (in 1960 — 4625) and 3182 health centers (in 1960 — 1394). In 1978 on 1 inhabitant 6,4 medical visits a year (in 1970 — 4,9), including were the share of the villager 2,1 visits (in 1970 — 1,2).
Protection of motherhood and childhood. After establishment of public authority in the country the state system of health protection of mothers and children was created. The working women receive the paid prenatal and postnatal issue of 16 weeks — at first labor, 18 weeks — at the subsequent childbirth and 26 weeks in case of the birth of two and more children at once. The lump sum — 2000 zloties irrespective of the size of the salary or the income in a family is paid for each born child of mother. Consistently the quantity of beds in obstetric gynecology departments of BC increases. In 1978 99,99% 94,6% in obstetric departments of BC and 5,2% in maternity hospitals were delivered under observation of medical staff, including. Patronage of pregnant women is everywhere carried out. Broad development got premarital and family advice.
Lechebno - a disease-prevention service to children is carried out by the children's consultations which are a part of district clinics and gminny health centers, rural health centers, and also school consultations and other institutions. Comprehensive medical examinations of newborns and babies, and also children and teenagers at the age of 2, 4, 6, 10, 14 and 18 years are regularly conducted. In case of identification of deviations in the state of health children are subject to active dispensary observation. In 1978 in the country 34 children's sanatoria, 1362 day nursery and 63 children's homes functioned. The essential role in protection of motherhood and the childhood is played Ying t of mother and the child and the Center of health of the child in Warsaw.
Pharmaceutical business is under authority of the Central board of pharmacy of Min-va of health care and social security. In voivodeships there are pharmaceutical managements. All drugstores in the country are public institutions. Development and the wedge, pharmaceuticals researches Ying t pharmaceuticals (Warsaw), at Krom in 1972 the Center of a research of side effect of drugs was created.
Sanitary and epidemiologic service. The state sanitary inspection led by the state chief medical officer is subordinated to Min-vu of health care and social security. State dignity. inspection according to administrative division of the country has in all voivodeships of the state voyevodsky medical officers appointed the Minister for Health and Social Welfare. The state local medical officers who bear responsibility for a dignity submit to them. - epid, a condition of several gmin and the cities, SES which is under control incorporating various well equipped laboratories. Duties dignity. protection of sea border of the country are assigned to the state port medical officers.
Much attention is paid to problems a dignity. environment protection, tasks a cut are legislatively enshrined in the Constitution of the country. The special law on its protection is adopted. The leadership in activity of public authorities, economic enterprises and public organizations in this area and its coordination carries out Min-in of administration, local economy and protection of the environment.
The sanatorium help is an integral part of general medical service of the population. In 1979 it was carried out in 44 resort areas, the being hl. obr. in districts of the Sudeten and Carpathian heights and on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Besides, 70 more areas having the conditions necessary for creation of new resorts were planned. The resort therapy has centuries-old traditions in the country and is conducted in three main directions: rehabilitation in resort-tsakh, treatment in sanatoria for hron, patients, prevention of diseases in institutions of sanatorium type.
The most known resorts in Poland treat: balneoklimatichesky — Krynitsa (see), Polyanitsa-Zdruy (see), Rabka, Shavnitsa; balneogryazevy — Busko-Zdruy, Ivonich, Lendek-Zdruy, Nalenchuv, Polchin-Zdruy, Sveraduv-Zdruy, Tseplitsa, Tsekhotsinek (see); balneal — Dushniki-Zdruy, Inowroclaw (see), Konstantsin-Ezerna, Kudova-Zdruy, P1avno-Zdruy; climatic and balneogryazevy — Kolobrzeg, Rymanuv, Svinouysvitsa, Sopot (see); mountain — Zakopane (see), etc. Many health resorts are known far outside the country.
Health care workforce. Thanks to a lot of work on preparation of medical shots the number of doctors, an average and junior medical staff considerably increased (tab. 5).
Medical education. Training of doctors, stomatologists and druggists is carried out in 10 medical in-ta which are directly subordinated to Min-vu of health care and social security. Terms of training for doctors — 6 years, for stomatologists — 5 years, for masters of pharmacy — 5 years, for masters of medical analytics — 5 years and masters on patient care — 4 years. In 1979 in medical in-ta 33 650 students, including 23 720 studied at medical departments. Annually graduates from medical higher education institutions apprx. 5140 graduates, including 3270 doctors.
Average medical shots prepare at the medical schools subordinated to voivodeships by the unified plans and programs approved by Min-vom of health care and social security and Min-vom of education and education. In 1979 preparation was conducted on 19 profiles at 334 medical schools with 529 departments, in to-rykh 84 940 people, including 65 400 as a nurse and a midwife studied. Annually medical schools end nearly 23,5 thousand graduates, including 15 thousand nurses and midwifes.
Postdegree training of medical workers with the higher and secondary education is coordinated by the Center of improvement of teachers and average medical shots and the Medical center of postdegree training. In voivodeships the centers of improvement of average medical shots function. In-you and 15 scientific research institutes of a medical profile take part in postdegree training of doctors and other specialists with the higher education medical.
In Min-va system of health care and social security of the Party of Russian Taxpayers the following research establishments function: Hematologic in-t, State in-t of hygiene, Ying t of pharmaceuticals, Ying t of mother and the child, Ying t of food and food, Ying t of oncology of M. Sclodovscaia-Curie, Ying t of tuberculosis, Ying t of rheumatism, Psychoneurological in-t (all in Warsaw), Ying t of sea and tropical medicine (Gdynia), Ying t of medicine of work in coal and metallurgical industry (Sosnowiec), Ying t of medicine of work in textile and chemical the industries (Lodz), Ying t of medicine of work and hygiene of the village of Witold Hodzhki (Lublin), the Main medical library (Warsaw), etc.
In system of the Polish academy of Sciences Ying t of biochemistry and biophysics (Warsaw), Ying t geneticists of the person (Poznan), Ying t of immunology and experimental function: therapies (Wroclaw), Ying t of experimental biology of M. Nents-ky and the Center of experimental and clinical medicine (Warsaw).
Many outstanding Polish scientists, including the biochemist and the microbiologist M. V. Nentsky, many years who worked in Russia double achieved the international recognition: Nobel Prize laureate (1903 and 1911) M. Sklodovskaya-Curie, one of creators of the doctrine about blood groups L. Girshfeljd, microbiologist R. Veygl (V. Weigl), therapist of W. Orlowski, surgeon of Z. Badlynski, phthisiatrician A. Sokolowski, with-tsial-hygienist M. Katspshak, etc. Widely the international cooperation with leaders scientific the medical centers in the world, especially the USSR develops. It is concluded apprx. 300 international treaties on cooperation in medicine. St. 450 Polish scientists from 60 centers participate in complex researches on 150 problems in the field of health care and medicine. Representatives of Poland actively participate in WHO's activities. Apprx. 1500 doctors-clinical physicians and research associates represent the country in the international scientific organizations.
In the Party of Russian Taxpayers works 38 scientific medical about - century. The Polish medical publishing house in 1945 — 1980 published 8017 names of books with a general circulation of 216 245 thousand copies, including in 1979 200 names of books with a circulation of 5135 thousand copies. Medical magazines are issued with a general circulation nearly 10 million copies in a year. In post-war years 406 scientific medical movies are created.
The medical industry
Industrial production of pharmaceuticals in Poland began in the first half of 19 century. In days of public authority in the country it is created sovr, powerful chemical - pharm. industry. In 15 years, from 1960 to 1975, the production of medicines increased more than by 12 times. In the country only in the association «Polfa» 12 function. large chemical - pharm, the plants, on to-rykh works apprx. 4000 specialists with the higher education. The Polfa plants issue St. 900 names of various pharmaceuticals for needs of health care of the country and for export to 75 countries of the world. Among them antibiotics, streptocides, cordial and vasodilators, psychotropic drugs, etc. Besides, are available merging of the enterprises for production of serums and vaccines — Biomed, on production of officinal herbs — Gerbapol, etc.
In the country the difficult electronic cardiological package, devices and other medical equipment for needs of health care of the country and deliveries to export is issued.
Table 1. The NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of POLAND FOR 1970 — 1978 (on 1000 people)
Table 2. INCIDENCE of SOME INFECTIOUS DISEASES &NASELENIYANBSP; POLAND &Zanbsp; 1970 — 1978 (on 100 000 population)
Table 3. The MAIN REASONS for DEATH IN POLAND In 1970 — 1978 (on 10 000 population)
Table 4. SECURITY of the POPULATION of POLAND with HOSPITAL BEDS ON SEPARATE SPECIALTIES FOR 1970 — 1978 (on 10 000 population)
Table 5. GROWTH of NUMBER of MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PERSONNEL IN POLAND (1946 — 1979)
Bibliography: Leovski E. Development of health care in the Polish People's Republic, in book: Socialism and health care, Probl, health and fizich. development of the person, under the editorship of S. Ya. Chikin, page 210, M., 1981; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world (1973 — 1977), the p. 2, page 316, Geneva, WHO, 1981.