POISONS INDUSTRIAL (a synonym poisons production) — the chemical compounds which are found on production as initial, intermediate, collateral or end products and having harmful effect on working or their posterity in case of non-compliance during the work of safety regulationss and occupational health.
In the USSR the number of cases of professional poisonings (see), especially acute, steadily decreases. Distinguish several stages of reactions
of an organism on hron. influence of poisons: stage of primary decompensation; stage fiziol. adaptations (can be absent); stage of compensation patol. process (so-called accustoming); the stage of a decompensation, in to-ruyu passes a stage of accustoming; the remote and set aside effects. Accustoming to I. the item should be considered as the phenomenon dangerous and inadmissible. It is established also that discontinuous (intermittent) action I. to the item on rather high levels it is usually more harmful, than their action in constant average concentration for the same time of influence.
At impact on an organism of nek-ry industrial poisons acceleration of processes of natural aging (gerontogenny action), emergence of malignant new growths is noted. Heavy metals, including lead, mercury, the aromatic compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons in particular chlorinated nek-ry fosforor-
ganichesky substances, carbamates, antibiotics, cytostatics, etc. can exert adverse impact on reproductive function and posterity (gonadotropic and embrio-tropny, including teratogenic, and also mutagen action).
According to GOST 12.1.007 — 76 «Occupational safety standards system. Harmful substances. Classification and general safety requirements» I. items on degree of toxicity and danger are divided into 4 classes (tab).
In conditions of production working can be affected by several I. the item (the combined action), and also other adverse production factors, in particular physical (the combined action). At high levels of influence summation of effect (the additive action) is most often observed if the pathogeny an intok
of a sikation the influencing factors is close. Potentiation (strengthening of joint effect) or antagonism (easing of joint effect) is less often noted. On low levels of influence independent character most often takes place, the additive is more rare.
Main ways of the prevention of influence I. the item on an organism: exception of high and hazardous substances or replacement their less toxic and less dangerous; reduction (in case of need) durations of the working day and increase in duration of issues for the persons adjoining to toxic compounds; appropriate organization tekhnol. process (continuity, sealing of the equipment), production design (removal tekhnol. the equipment to certain placements or on open air with department of corridors or operating consoles), ventilation (see); use of individual means of protection —
clothes (see Clothes special), footwear (see), points (see), gloves, gas masks (see), respirators (see), protective pastes, ointments, etc.; the organization shower with daily shift (in case of need) production underwear; periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination), development of contraindications for work with industrial poisons to lay down. - the prof. food (see Food lechebnoprofilaktichesky), medicamentous prevention, etc.
See also Professional harm, Sanitary protection of free air, Sanitary protection of reservoirs, Toxicology, industrial; Production sanitation.
The table CLASSIFICATION of CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS BY DEGREE of THEIR TOXICITY AND DANGER (the main indicators are presented)
the Bibliography: Sanotsky I. V.
and Ulanova I. P. Criteria of harm in hygiene and toxicology at assessment of danger of chemical compounds, M., 1975;
Sanotsky I. V. and Fomenko V. N. The remote effects vliya-
a niya of chemical compounds on an organism, M., 1979, bibliogr., I. V. Sanotsky.