POISONOUS ANIMALS are animals, the organism to-rykh contains substances, poisonous for the person and individuals of other types.
I. are available in all large systematic groups from protozoa to vertebrata. To a crust, time 5000 species of poisonous animals, including within the USSR apprx. 1500 types are described. According to WHO data, in the world annually from stings I. more than 10 million people, from them suffer from stings of snakes — more than 500 thousand (including from 30 to 50 thousand cases from the death are registered), poisonings with different types of poisonous fishes are registered at 20 thousand people (including death is noted approximately in 300 cases).
I. it is accepted to divide on primary and poisonous, or active yadovi-tykh, and secondary and poisonous, or passive and poisonous. The animals having the specialized glands or cells producing toxin, and the special hurting device for administration of toxin in an organism of other animal treat active and poisonous. Usually such I. use poison for attack. Animals belong to passive and poisonous, in separate bodies or fabrics to-rykh toxic products of metabolism collect. Poisonings develop at the use of animals of this group in food. The animals having poisonous glands, but deprived of the hurting device such, e.g., as toads and frogs red-bellied toads are intermediate. For animals of this group poison serves as a security measure.
Degree of virulence of representatives of the same look can vary depending on a season, a habital, character of food and other factors. As a rule, females are more poisonous, than males, and at nek-ry types are poisonous only females. There are also individual distinctions in degree of virulence.
Toxins Ya., or zootoxins, belong to various classes of chemical connections (see Toxins). Many animal toxins represent proteins, almost in all cases possessing neurotropic and (or) psychotropic action. Neurotoxic action is shown by paresthesias, a cholinolytic syndrome, a convulsive syndrome, peripheral paresis, neurogenic disturbances of breath; psychotropic — devocalization, symptoms of intoksikatsionny psychosis. Nek-ry proteinaceous toxins are enzymes. E.g., the phospholipase of A2 (see Lecithinases) — a component of poison of snakes — activates the lecithin possessing hemolitic and cytolytic action; L - aminooksida - for turns amino acids into ketones (see), to-rye activate fabric peptidase, thus strengthening destruction of fabrics. Believe that poisons of active and poisonous animals have bigger toxicity since usually the low-molecular weight compounds having a local and systemic effect are their part in addition to a proteinaceous component. Local irritant action on skin as a chemical burn is rendered by organic acids, to-rye contain in poisons of many insects and jellyfishes. The composition of many poisons of invertebrates, in particular bees and wasps, includes the cyclic amines similar on chemical structure and action on an organism with a histamine (see). Widespread components of animal poisons are substances, to-rye have no toxicity, but are capable to strengthen or prolong effect of toxins. Treat them hyaluronidase (see), edges promotes bystry distribution of toxic components of poison from the place of a sting on all organism; the proteases (see Peptide-hydrolase) possessing hemorrhagic and proteolytic action and considerably strengthening the cumulative toxic effect of animal poisons; various anticoagulants (see), to-rye break process of a blood coagulation, promoting further distribution of poisons.
Complexity of animal poisons causes variety of toxic effects as a result of impact on various systems of an organism. So, effect of poisons of snakes causes damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, disturbance of a rhythm and conductivity of heart, to-rye are often combined with a syndrome of the disseminated intravascular coagulation (see. Hemorrhagic diathesis, and also Trombogemorragichesky syndrome, t. 25 and t. 29, additional materials). Besides, the proteinaceous component of animal poisons in many cases causes in the person anaphylactic reactions as many proteins are strong antigens (see the Anaphylaxis). Nek-ry animal poisons contain glycosides (see), to-rye influence autonomous nerve terminations and cause at the same time damage to nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Reaction of victims to the same animal poison is various. At persons, sensibilized earlier zootoxins, probability of development of an acute anaphylaxis (see) much higher. Especially hard toxicoses proceed at children.
The complex composition and bystry biotransformation of animal poisons considerably complicate their quantitative and even qualitative test in an organism of the victim.
I. treat various systematic groups. Among protozoa (see) nek-ry representatives of zooplankton are poisonous. The poison (Saky-sitoksin) relating to group of neurotoxins collects in special organellas like urticant capsules. At consumption of the fishes and mollusks who were systematically eating poisonous planktonic protozoa the acute poisonings which are characterized by preferential defeat of a peripheral nervous system can develop (parasthesias, paresis, etc.).
To coelenterates, poisonous for the person, (see) actinium, several types of corals and jellyfishes belong. Poison at them is produced by special nettling cells, to-rye are located on feelers and around an actinostome. Defeat of the person happens in case of contact with feelers. Poisons of coelenterates include various organic to - you, a histamine, serotonin or other cyclic amines and toxins of the proteinaceous nature. Depending on a ratio of the above-stated components poisons can render the local irritating, hemolitic or neurotropic action. The most serious poisoning is caused by tropical corals, jellyfishes and the tropical sifonofora «the Portuguese ship» which is often found at coast of Cuba. Poison actinium, jellyfishes tsiany (Cyanea sp.), the moderate and middle latitudes living in the seas, and the Black Sea jellyfish of a kornerot (Rhizostoma pulmo) usually causes only the local irritating effect like a chemical burn. However at defeat of extensive sites of skin the phenomena of an anaphylaxis can be observed. Poison of small jellyfishes-krestovichkov (Gonionemus vertens) living at coast of the Sea of Japan possesses resorptive neurotoxic action. The most often hard cases of poisoning at contact with coelenterates are registered at scuba divers and fishermen of the trawling fleet.
Among mollusks (see) octopuses, or octopuses, and representatives of Castropoda of mollusks from the sort Conus are poisonous. Poison at octopuses is produced by back couple of sialadens, contains a histamine, hyaluronidase and other highly toxic components. Even small individuals of octopuses are poisonous. In the place of a sting the hyperemia, a swelling, burning and an itch are observed, but the picture of systemic poisoning — the defeat of neuromuscular synapses leading to spasms and the complicated breath is more characteristic. As a rule, octopuses the first do not attack the person; attack is caused by attempt to get closer to them or to catch. The poison of tropical Castropoda of mollusks of the sort Conus which is contained in sialadens and teeth of a radula (a part of the oral device) also possesses neurotropic action. Poisoning results from a prick about teeth during the collecting mollusks.
Among erinaceouses (see) nek-ry species of holothurias (sea cucumbers), sea hedgehogs and stars are poisonous. Holothurias live in a coastal zone of the southern seas, many types are edible, napr, the type of Holothuria edulus serves as object of trade and goes on sale under the name of a trepang. Poison of a holothuria is produced in longitudinal tubes — the so-called kyuvyerovy bodies located in an intestinal cavity. Poison contains kardiotropny and neurotropic glycosides. Poisoning comes at consumption of trepangs with not completely remote interiors. Poisonous sea hedgehogs possess special poisonous needles. Poison of the majority of sea hedgehogs causes only hypostasis, burning and an itch in the place of a prick. Only poison of a hedgehog murderer (Joxopneustes pileolus) living at coast of the Sea of Japan has hemolitic and neurotropic effect.
Significant amount I. belongs to arachnoid (see). These are representatives of groups of scorpions, spiders and nek-ry species of mites (see). Area of scorpions — from rainforests to deserts. Jumbos are most poisonous. The poisonous device is presented by a modified trailer segment of a tail and has an appearance of an ampoule with a sharp curved retractor. Poison possesses neurotropic and kardiotropny action. The motley scorpion (Buthus eupeus) lives in Central Asia, Transcaucasia and Lower Volga area; in the western Areas of Transcaucasia — mingrelian (Euscorpius mingrelicus); on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus — the Italian scorpion (Euscor-pius italicus). Availability of two poisonous glands located in the forefront of a body is typical for representatives of group of spiders. Glands are surrounded with spiral muscles, with the help a cut poison with a force is thrown out through an opening in helitser (a part of the oral device). Poison of spiders possesses the local irritating and neurotropic action. Poison of an eurysynusic spider of a karakurt (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) living in deserts and steppes of Central Asia in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, and also in Iran, Afghanistan and on coast of the Mediterranean Sea is exclusively dangerous to the person and domestic animals. On the American continent the representative of other type of this sort — Latrodectus mactans meets. A female of this spider, to-ruyu sometimes call «the black widow», almost black color with red spots on spin, reaches 10 — 20 mm in length (a male
of 4 — 5 mm). Poison of a puberal female of a karakurt is 15 times stronger than poison of a rattlesnake. Considerable danger is constituted by also South Russian tarantula (Lycosa singoriensis), virulence to-rogo is most expressed at the end of summer. The big-bellied tick (Pediculoides ventricosus), larvae of krasnotelkovy mites and flour mites treat poisonous representatives of mites (this. Tyroglyphidae) attacking the people working with dried fruits, flour. Poison of mites renders local irritant action on skin.
Poison of many insects (see) causes toxic dermatitis. Ants (see), caterpillars of a zheltoustka and an oak silkworm concern to poisonous insects (see Dermatozoonoses). Bees, bumblebees, wasps and hornets produce the poison, similar on structure (see Apitoxin) rendering both local, and systemic toxic effect. Only females since poisonous bodies are a modified part of female generative organs are poisonous.
Among vertebrata there are I. meet in classes of fishes, amphibiouses and reptiles. In a class of fishes both active and poisonous, and passive and poisonous types are noted. Active and poisonous fishes have a special pricking device: or the pricking fins, as at skorpeno-vy, or special thorns on a tail, as at hvostokol, or on a branchiate cover, as at draconian fishes. The pricking device is connected to poisonous glands. Poisonous glands at the «snakes» living in the Mediterranean and Black seas, or «dragons», and tropical fishes-borodovchatok and fishes toads are especially strongly developed. Usually pricks poisonous thorns cause only hypostasis and irritation of skin. At passive and poisonous fishes degree of toxicity depends on season, age of fishes, impurity of water, etc. From fresh-water fishes it should be noted the Central Asian marinka (Schizothorax) and the man with a big mustache (Barbus fluviatilis), at to-rykh caviar is poisonous. In Japan carry fishes dogs to poisonous, at to-rykh meat it is edible, however ovaries, calves, milts, a liver, intestines and skin are poisonous. Toxic action is caused tetrodoksiny and tetradotoksiny, to-rye affect the central and peripheral nervous system. There are fishes, at to-rykh toxic properties blood possesses (nek-ry species of eels, moray eels). The liver of sharks, especially tropical is poisonous. Sometimes among the population of fishing settlements there are outbreaks of the acute disease which is expressed in toxic damage of skeletal muscles and kidneys. It is connected with consumption of nek-ry fishes (a pike, a pike perch, a burbot, a perch, eels, etc.), to-rye can temporarily gain toxic properties, eating plankton infected with toxic agents (see. Yuksovsko-sartlansky disease). It is described apprx. 300 species of sea fishes, including and trade, in an organism to-rykh the neurotoxin — ikhtiosarkotoksin under certain conditions can collect (sigvatoksin, a whitefish-vaterin). Consumption of the fishes containing ikhtiosarkotoksin leads to development of the serious poisoning which received the name of a sigvate-r. The reasons causing accumulation in an organism of fishes of toxin are not clear, most often cases of poisoning are registered in hot summer months.
In a class of amphibiouses (see) nek-ry species of toads and a frog red-bellied toad are poisonous. At toads poison is produced by parotid skin glands — Paro-tidy. Allocation of a poisonous secret happens during the squeezing of a toad. The poisonous beginnings of zhaby poison — bufotenin and bufotoksin — are close on activity to strophanthin (see) and have the expressed cardiotoxic effect. Tubercular leather of frogs red-bellied toads contains glands developing a neurotoxin frinolitsin.
In a class of reptiles (see) in a suborder of lizards the North American lizard yado-tooth (Heloderma) is poisonous. Toxic effect of poison is similar to poison of snakes from family of adders. Venomous snakes (see) have the pair «poisonous» device consisting of glands, two channels and two poisonous teeth on upper jaws. On structure distinguish poison of two types; poison of adders and sea serpents contains hl. obr. neurotoxic components, in poison of gadyuko-vy and yamkogolovy (rattling) snakes prevail toxins of local action (see. Snake poison). From aspido-vy the tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), imeyushchya the strongest poison among land animals is of special interest. She lives in Australia and Tasmania. The amount of poison which is contained in iron of a large copy of such snake makes up to 400 doses, deadly to the person. The only representative aspidovy, living in the territory of the USSR (in the south of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) — the Central Asian cobra (Naja naja oxiana). Gadyukovy dragons are widespread in Africa, Europe and Asia. Their poison causes local reaction, being hemorrhagic in the basis. In the territory of the USSR several species of vipers live. Stings only of jumbos are dangerous to human life.
Treatment of acute poisonings with animal poisons shall be complex, including actions of symptomatic, specific and detoksikatsionny therapy. Due to the bystry development of toxic effect the self-care and mutual assistance are of great importance. Measures of first aid depend on a way of hit of poison to a human body.
At hit of toxic agent on skin, napr, at contact with jellyfishes, caterpillars, toads, etc., rather carefully to wash out the struck surface running water with soap, further locally to impose any nutritious cream on a fatty basis.
At food poisoning poisonous fishes and mollusks it is necessary to wash out immediately a stomach — to accept inside 2 — 3 glasses of the added some salt water, and then to cause vomiting. After a gastric lavage it is necessary to accept sorbents: or the tableted drug of active coal Carbolenum (10 — 15 tablets), or 80 — 100 g of black crackers.
At a sting of venomous snakes, spiders, scorpions, etc. it is necessary to squeeze out the first drops of blood from a wound and to suck away a mouth poison (at giving help there should not be fresh injuries of an oral cavity), to spit out it and it is good to rinse water an oral cavity. The bitten extremity whenever possible should be immobilized (as ir a fracture of bones,
to shinirovat the next to the place of a sting a joint) any make-shifts. It is not recommended to do cuts or to cauterize places of a sting, and also to impose a plait on an extremity that can cause serious complications. In all cases of emergence of symptoms of poisoning with zootoxins hospitalization is necessary for performing complex treatment.
The main action of acute medical aid at stings of snakes, spiders, pricks of a scorpion is purpose of specific monovalent or polyvalent serum (see). At stings of snakes use polyvalent antivenene serum more often, edges possesses a wide range specific and nonspecific neutralizing actionsiya. In the first days after a sting 500 — 1000 ATU (anti-toxic units) of serum intramusculary enter, in hard cases enter serum repeatedly. In all cases of a sting of snakes administration of antitetanic serum is shown. At a sting of a karakurt and a tarantula protivokarakur-tovy serum is applied, to-ruyu enter intramusculary (1
ampoule with a capacity of 10 ml supports one to lay down. a dose), at a sting of a scorpion — protivoskorpio-new serum. If the species of a poisonous insect is unknown or not homologous serum, then heterological serums, even antivenene can be used. Antivenene serum is applied also at stings of octopuses and lizards of a yadozub.
At poisonings with many animal poisons there are no specific remedies and the symptomatic treatment is applied. Means of symptomatic therapy at stings of bees, wasps and other insects, in hard cases of burns from jellyfishes, having pricked with needles of sea hedgehogs and stars antihistaminic drugs (Pipolphenum, Suprastinum and Dimedrol) are. The same drugs, and also Prednisolonum (to 500 mg a day) apply at poisonings with the toxins of the proteinaceous nature causing the phenomena of an anaphylaxis. At development of a toxic myasthenia carrying out artificial hardware respiration is necessary (see. Artificial respiration). Among means of symptomatic therapy a specific place is held by heparin (see), to-ry except the known detoksikatsionny effect is necessary for prevention and treatment of a trombogemorragichesky syndrome. Heparin is usually appointed intramusculary on 5000 — 10 000 PIECES a day.
Detoksikatsionny treatment consists in carrying out an artificial diuresis within two-three days. At heavy toxicosis, especially at children, hemosorption is shown (see t. 10, additional materials), and in rare instances of development pechenochno-pochech-ache insufficiency — a hemodialysis (see) in combination with hemosorption. A certain detoksikatsionny effect is reached at intravenous administration of solutions of albumine and Haemodesum.
For prevention and treatment inf. complications usually appoint antibiotics. Treatment of local inflammatory processes consists in a local hypothermia and imposing of aseptic dressings. If necessary carry out a necretomy (see).
As a rule, from stings I. the person suffers as a result of the wrong behavior, a cut is perceived animal as threat. The main measures of prevention are observance of certain rules of precaution at stay in habitals I., good knowledge of their habits and outward (tsvetn. the tab., Art. 176, fig. 27 — 32).
Poisonous animals, the most often defiant acute poisonings at people, an area of their dwelling, the main toxic components of poison, a way of its receipt to an organism, the nature of toxic action, the main a wedge, displays of poisonings and a measure of acute management at them are brought in the table.
See also Poisonings, Food poisonings.
POISONOUS ANIMALS, the MOST OFTEN DEFIANT ACUTE POISONINGS AT PEOPLE,
the AREA of THEIR DWELLING, the MAIN TOXIC COMPONENTS of POISON, the WAY of ITS RECEIPT TO the ORGANISM, the NATURE of TOXIC ACTION, the MAIN CLINICAL DISPLAYS of POISONINGS
AND the MEASURE of ACUTE MANAGEMENT
Bibliogrbannikov A. G., D and-revsky I. S. and Rustamov A. K. Amphibia and reptiles of the USSR, M., 1971; Questions of a herpetology, under the editorship of I. S. Darevsky, page 27, L., 1973; Life of animals, under the editorship of A. G. Bannikov, t. 1 — 6, M., 1964 — 1969; Life of animals, under the editorship of L. A. Zenkevich, etc., t. 4, p.1, M., 1971; Eagles to B. N. and Valtsa in and I. A. Poisons of snakes, Tashkent, 1977; Pavlovsky E. H. Poisonous animals of the USSR, M. — L., 1931, bibliogr.; M. N. sultans. Stings of poisonous animals, M., 1977; Poisonous animals of Central Asia, under the editorship of G. S. Sultanov, page 270, Tashkent, 1970; Toxicology, ed. by L. J. Casarett a. J. Doull, N. Y., 1975.
Yu. K. Bogoyavlensky, I. A. Valtseva, E. A. Luzhnikov; author of the tab., B. A. Luzhnikov.