# PODOMETRIYA

PODOMETRIYA (grech, podos of stop + metreo to measure, measure) — measurement of various departments of feet and calculation of ratios of the obtained data. The term «podometriya», a method and the device for P. are offered by M. O. Friedland in 1926. In 1927 the first model of a stopomer for P. (podometr) was simplified by it. Height of foot is measured in this model by means of a mobile level from the basis of a support of a stopomer (fig. 1). Measurement is taken without load of the weight (weight) of a body of foot.

Fig. 1. Podometr Friedland: 1 — the basis, 2 — a mobile level, 3 — a scale (in centimeters).
Fig. 2. The scheme of measurements of foot for definition of a podometrichesky index of Friedland: h — height of foot, l — length of foot.

Length of foot (l) is measured having laid a support on the floor and moving the mobile level turned around a support on 180 °. Height (h) is measured from a floor to an upper surface of a navicular, by both indicators with an accuracy of 1 mm (fig. 2). The attitude of the first size towards the second expressed as a percentage is called a podometrichesky index of Friedland (h*100/l). This indicator was considered as the basic at diagnosis of flat-footedness for a long time. The podometrichesky index 29 — 31 was taken for an indicator of norm, its increase or reduction was considered as a sign according to increase or decrease in the arch of foot. It was proved later that there is no so close connection between height and length of foot and its arches and therefore the podometrichesky index is not reliable diagnostic test flat-footedness (see). Anthropologists measure height of the longitudinal arch from tuberosity of a navicular to a floor by means of a caliper. The indicator is used during the studying of children's foot in dynamics. There are more perfect devices allowing to measure and other indicators (length and width of foot with loading and without loading, height of the arch, a corner of pronation and supination of calcaneal department of foot, a deviation of a corner of a shin) and also to investigate both feet at the same time. At measurement of feet the great value is attached to a configuration of the arches; it is studied special devices — the svodomer helping to investigate shock-absorbing properties of foot. The most perfect device is stopo-measures with a dynamo graphic platforms and Jansson's svodomer for a research at the same time of two feet with loading and without loading.

Bibliography: Oster V. R. Stopomer who is automatically defining Frind-land's index, Ortop, and travmat., jvft 5, page 71, 1966; Friedland M. O. To a technique of an orthopedic research of foot, Vestn, hir. and frontier. Region, t. 6, book 17-18, page 17, 1926; Shargorodsky V. S. and I r and l about in - I r and - l I am N of V. A. O of c of function of the longitudinal arch of foot, Ortop, and travmat., century 1, page 23, 1971; I not it am X. A. Biomekhanika of the lower extremity of the person, page 164, Riga, 1975; Haraldsson S. Pes plano-valgus sta-ticus juvenilis and its operative treatment, Acta orthop, scand., v. 35, p. 234, 1965; Thomsen W. Vorfuhrung eines Appa-rates zur Messung des Sohlendruckes, Verh. dtsch. orthop. Ges., S. 520, 1967.

A. A. Travkin.