From Big Medical Encyclopedia

POCHERKOVEDENIYE — the industry of criminalistics studying handwriting and developing methods of its research for problem solving of judicial examination. P.'s basis is the system of knowledge of sudebnopocherkovedchesky identification (establishment on handwriting of the performer of the hand-written document) that makes a subject judicial pocherkovedcheskoy (graphic) examination.

Emergence of the theory judicial pocherkovedcheskoy identifications in criminalistics is connected with development of a method of an identification of the personality by the description of external signs (see. Identification of the personality ), A. Bertillon was the author to-rogo. The aspiration to creation of scientific bases of P. generated a grafometriya — measurement of qualitative features of handwriting. Further this method began to be applied only as working reception (at a separate and comparative research). Bourgeois criminalists at judicial handwriting examination used also provisions of a graphology — each of to-rykh points the recognition on handwriting of character of the person based on the wrong concept that handwriting contains signs, to this or that property of the personality.

In pre-revolutionary Russia the big contribution to P.'s development was made by E. F. Burinsky. The period of formation of P. in our country is connected with S. M. Potapov, A. I. Vinberg, B. M. Komarints, B. I. Shevchenko's activity, etc. it is characterized by the solution of the problems connected with further development and classification of identification signs of handwriting and assessment of their importance.

The theory judicial pocherkovedcheskoy identifications represents system of knowledge of the nature letters (see) and handwriting, about their identification properties and signs, about a technique of a research for the purpose of establishment of the performer of the manuscript. P.'s progress in studying of the mechanism of the letter, detection of dependence of signs of handwriting on various factors give the grounds to use the obtained data for the decision and not identification tasks, in particular possibilities of establishment on features of the letter and handwriting of the fact of implementation of the manuscript in unusual conditions (in strong nervousness, alcoholic intoxication are investigated, at a disease and other states writing).

As an object of an identification research handwriting is defined as the individual and dynamically steady visual and motive image of the graphic technology of the letter which is implemented by means of system of movements. Division of its signs into the general and private depending on expressiveness in the manuscript of the corresponding properties of handwriting is standard. The general signs of handwriting consider those properties which characterize implementation of the manuscript in general; private — performance of separate letters. From the general signs especially allocate degree of clarity and a structure of handwriting. They reflect high-integrative properties of handwriting and in the course of identification act as a classification sign for establishment of group accessory of handwriting. By means of special researches identity of handwriting and its relative stability throughout all life is revealed after writing skills are created (to 17 — to 18-year age). Stability of handwriting is relative, i.e. over time under the influence of various conditions in writing skills the certain changes which are reflected in its signs are possible. Changes of handwriting depending on a psychophysiological condition of a certain person, an unusual pose of the writing, unusual material and tools of the letter are studied. It is shown that the changes happening at the same time do not interfere with identification of the personality on handwriting. Intended (intentional) changes of handwriting (letter printing letters, left hand, etc.) are connected with need of reorganization of the dynamic stereotype inherent in a certain person which developed in the course of shaping of the letter. In this regard radical change of signs of handwriting usually does not manage to be reached, a part them remains not changed. In a number of cases it allows not only to determine the fact of intentional distortion of handwriting, but also to establish the performer of the manuscript.

The evidence-based technique of individualization of handwriting allows to conduct successfully identification researches on the most various pocherkovy materials — to usual alphabetic texts, signatures, the digital letter, the letter with imitation a printing font, etc.

As an object for criminalistic identification handwriting represents system of identification signs. As manifestation of identity of handwriting serves specificity of identification signs. A measure of specificity of a sign is frequency, about a cut it meets in handwritings of different people. Assessment of probability of accessory of a certain sign to this handwriting (i.e. probabilities that it is not accidental) is based on determination of frequency of emergence of this sign. At the same time the minimum frequency of emergence of property as sign of handwriting in different groups of letters depending on what frequency it meets in the Russian writing is considered.

Intensive penetration into a research of handwriting of mathematical methods is characteristic of modern P.'s development. Allocate three directions of use of mathematical methods in P.: 1) probabilistic and statistical, 2) measuring and statistical, 3) cybernetic. The probabilistic and statistical direction — quantification of the identification importance of signs of handwriting, a research of interdependence of signs of handwriting and a possibility of its account in identification researches, assessment of the identification importance of the distinctions established at a comparative research. The measuring and statistical direction includes a problem of objectification and more exact research of handwriting by means of statistical measurements and use of cybernetic methods. Some researches based on a method of graphic averaging and graphic dispersion analysis are close to this direction. The main place in them is taken by graphic expression of average indicators of a so-called image of a letter and its dispersion. The essence of a method of graphic averaging consists in obtaining the average image of a written sign characteristic of a certain handwriting, on the basis of combination of specially rated single images of written signs in specific manuscripts. Graphic dispersion analysis assumes, except obtaining the average image of a written sign, assessment of dispersion, dispersion on the area of not combined strokes or their parts deviating the average image. The nature (form) and the area of dispersion is of interest. The average images of a written sign and dispersion received separately in the studied document and in samples are compared by means of combination. In such way it is possible to gain an evident impression about the steadiest and, on the contrary, about the most fluctuating sites, about limits of these fluctuations, and also about coincidence and distinctions of the compared average average samples of the letters of the same name and indicators of dispersion. At cybernetic researches apply an algorithm of an identification of an image to differentiation of similar pocherkovy objects. Work on the choice and creation of various algorithms and first of all algorithms of so-called identification type is carried out.

Questions of a pocherkovedeniye and technique of judicial handwriting examination are covered in works of All-Union research institute of judicial examinations, in collections «Criminalistic Equipment Abroad», «Criminalistic and Judicial Examination», «Theory and Practice of Criminalistic Examination», «Criminalistic Equipment» and some other.

Bibliography: Burinsky E. F. Judicial examination of documents, production eya and use of it, SPb., 1903; JI about to and r E. The guide to criminalistics, the lane with fr., M., 1941; Otto l e of N of and Page. Examination of handwriting and graphic identification, the lane with ital., M., 1926, bibliogr.; Potapov S. Scientific pocherkovedeniye, Owls. state and right, No. 12, page 80, 1940; T about m silt and V. V N. Bases of forensic medical examination of the letter, M., 1974, bibliogr.; To 1 a g e s L. Handschrift und Charakter, Lpz., 1941, Bibliogr.; S an u d e k R. Wis-senschaftliche, Gjraphologie, Miinchen, 1926r

V. V. Tomilin.