From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PNEUMOREN (grech, pneuma air + lat. ren kidney; synonym pnevmoperinefros) — filling with gas of pararenal space. The item is imposed artificially with the diagnostic purpose (diagnostic P.), extremely seldom P. can arise at nek-ry patol, states, napr, at a mephitic gangrene of pararenal cellulose, perforation of a retroperitoneal part of a duodenum (pathological P.).

Diagnostic P. (perirenal insufflation) — administration of gas in pararenal cellulose on purpose rentgenol, researches of a kidney and an adrenal gland — was offered in 1921 by Rosenstein (R. of Rosenstein).

Shortcomings of a method are the impossibility of obtaining the simultaneous image of both kidneys and adrenal glands, danger of damage of large vessels, adjacent bodies, diaphragms and pleurae during a puncture of pararenal cellulose. Due to implementation in a wedge, practice of infusional urography (see), renal angiography (see), presakralny insufflation (see. Pneumoretroperitoneum ) Items apply seldom.

It use hl. obr. for identification of a form, size of kidneys and adrenal glands at their tumors and a hyperplasia and for recognition of not organ tumors of retroperitoneal space.

Carrying out Item. contraindicated at serious condition of the patient, acute inflammatory processes and tumors of the big sizes in retroperitoneal and pararenal cellulose, an injury of kidneys.

the Right-hand pnevmorenogramma is normal: 1 — an adrenal gland, 2 — a kidney.

The research is made under local anesthesia, in position of the patient on one side, opposite to the party of a research. Pararenal cellulose is punktirut in a point of intersection of bottom edge of the XII edge with long muscles of a back, then, in the absence of blood in a needle, by means of the device for artificial pheumothorax or two devices of Bobrov slowly enter carbon dioxide gas, oxygen or nitrous oxide in quantity from 150 cm 3 (children) to 500 cm 3 (adult). In 10 — 15 min., and if necessary in 6, 12, 24 hours after administration of gas, under roentgenoscopic control make pictures in direct (fig.), side or slanting projections or a tomography.

Bibliography: Lindenbraten L. D. and Naumov L. B. Methods of X-ray inspection of bodies and systems of the person, page 337, Tashkent, 1976; Pytel A. Ya. and Pytel Yu. A. Radiodiagnosis of urological diseases, M., 1966; Handbuch der medi-/.inischen Radiologie, hrsg. v. O. Olsson, Bd 13, T. 1, B. u. a., 1973; R o s e n-s t e i n P. Die «Pneumoradiographie des Nierenlagers» ein neues Verfahren zur ra-diographischen DarsteUung des Nieren und ihrer Nachbarorgane (Nebenniere, Milz, Leber), Z. Urol., Bd 15, S. 447, 1921.

B. M. Perelman.