PLANTOGRAFIYA (Latin planta of stop, a sole + grech, grapho to write, represent) — one of the most widespread methods of an opredele-leniye of flat-footedness at adults on a plantogramma — a print of a bottom surface of foot.
On a structure of stop reminds a vaulted construction with two longitudinal arches. The outside arch is formed by calcaneal, cubical, IV—V plusnevy bones; the internal arch — collision, carinate, three wedge-shaped, I, II, III plusnevy bones (fig. 1). The outside arch is called cargo as is the main carrier of weight, the internal arch — springing since it performs function of a spring.
Removal of a plantogramma is made by means of a plantograf.
Plantograf represents a frame with the polyethylene film tense on it under which the layer of the gauze covered with a thin coat of printing ink is placed. The frame is put the painted party on the clean sheet of paper. Inspected sitting puts at the same time both feet on a plantograf and accepts vertical position with uniform load of both legs. Contours of feet lead round a pencil, between III and IV fingers at the level of heads III and IV plusnevy bones note a point.
Measurement on a plantogramma gives the chance to estimate degree flat-footedness (see). Processing and interpretation of a plantogramma which represents a print of a heel of the cargo arch of foot and its front department, by Godunov's method consists in following (fig. 2).
On a plantogramma III and IV plusnevy bones to the center of a heel draw a line from a point in an interval between heads (the line and), on an outer and inner edge of a print carry out 2 tangents (lines and c) until the end of a contour of foot, from the middle of the line would recover a perpendicular (g) before crossing with the line in and divide it between lines and and into 3 equal parts.
Normal the border of the cargo arch matches the line and or is close to it; at flat-footedness of the I degree — extends to V3 of subsummary space (on a plantogramma it remains not painted over), at the II degree on 2/3 subsummary spaces and at flat-footedness of the III degree occupies all subsummary space.
One of widespread methods of assessment of prints of feet is the method Shtriter (fig. 3). On a plantogramma carry out a tangent to the most acting points of an internal contour of foot. From its middle recover a perpendicular av before crossing it with an outside contour of a print. Measure as a percentage a ratio of the painted-over part of a perpendicular be to all its length.
The received figures estimate as follows; from 0 to 40% — various degrees of hollow foot; from 40 to 50% — norm; from 50 to 100% — various degrees of flat-footedness.
At people excessively raised or subnutrition of a plantogramma are distorted and do not characterize a condition of the arch of foot.
Plantografiya should use in combination with other diagnostic methods: poll, survey, podometriya (see), a X-ray analysis, a podografiya (a biomechanical method of definition of time of a support for various departments of foot during the walking). On roentgenograms in a side projection at load of a leg and without it about a condition of the longitudinal arch judge by an inclination of a calcaneus to the plane of a support. The tilt angle of a calcaneus to the horizontal plane is normal 16 — 25 °. Its reduction is observed at various degrees of flat-footedness.
Bibliography: Brandis S.A. Some data to the characteristic of foot, Ortop, and travmat., No. 3-4, page 82, 1930; Godunov S. F. About flat-footedness at children, in the same place, No. 1, page 40, 1968; Godunov S. F., P e r N and N and N. P. and Potikhano-v and G. G. Instruction for definition of longitudinal flat-footedness, Prosthetics and prosthetic engineering, century 3, page 71, M., 1960; r and c and N about in A. I. and And z r and fi-le in V. A. O to diagnosis of flat-footedness at the military personnel, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 8, page 78, 1977; Zavyalova N. V. About the orthopedic analysis of the longitudinal arch of foot, Saturday. works in-that for usover-shenstvo. doctors of Lenin in Kazan, t. 4, page 355, Kazan, 1935; Marx V. O. Orthopedic diagnosis, page 479, Minsk, 1978: Shtriter V. To a question of measurement of flat-footedness, the Gigabyte. work, No. 12 of page 20, 1927.‘’
G. N. Kramarenko.