From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PLANTOGRAFIYA (Latin planta of stop, a sole + grech, grapho to write, represent) — one of the most widespread methods of an opredele-leniye of flat-footedness at adults on a plantogramma — a print of a bottom surface of foot.

Fig. 1. Bones of foot (dorsal view): bones of the outside longitudinal arch (are shown dark), bones of the internal longitudinal arch (are shown light)

On a structure of stop reminds a vaulted construction with two longitudinal arches. The outside arch is formed by calcaneal, cubical, IV—V plusnevy bones; the internal arch — collision, carinate, three wedge-shaped, I, II, III plusnevy bones (fig. 1). The outside arch is called cargo as is the main carrier of weight, the internal arch — springing since it performs function of a spring.

Removal of a plantogramma is made by means of a plantograf.

Plantograf represents a frame with the polyethylene film tense on it under which the layer of the gauze covered with a thin coat of printing ink is placed. The frame is put the painted party on the clean sheet of paper. Inspected sitting puts at the same time both feet on a plantograf and accepts vertical position with uniform load of both legs. Contours of feet lead round a pencil, between III and IV fingers at the level of heads III and IV plusnevy bones note a point.

Fig. 2. The scheme of definition of degree of flat-footedness with the help plantografin (dark showed a normal plantogram-ma): and — the line connecting an interval between heads III and IV plusnevy bones to the center of a calcaneus — the tangent line to the interior of a print of foot, in — the tangent line to the outer side of a print of foot — a perpendicular from the middle of the line; I, II and III — borders of prints of the arch of foot at flat-footedness of I, II and III degrees respectively.

Measurement on a plantogramma gives the chance to estimate degree flat-footedness (see). Processing and interpretation of a plantogramma which represents a print of a heel of the cargo arch of foot and its front department, by Godunov's method consists in following (fig. 2).

Fig. 3. Definition of the longitudinal arch of foot on V. A. Shtriter: a ratio of length of Wb to length ab (it is calculated as a percentage).

On a plantogramma III and IV plusnevy bones to the center of a heel draw a line from a point in an interval between heads (the line and), on an outer and inner edge of a print carry out 2 tangents (lines and c) until the end of a contour of foot, from the middle of the line would recover a perpendicular (g) before crossing with the line in and divide it between lines and and into 3 equal parts.

Normal the border of the cargo arch matches the line and or is close to it; at flat-footedness of the I degree — extends to V3 of subsummary space (on a plantogramma it remains not painted over), at the II degree on 2/3 subsummary spaces and at flat-footedness of the III degree occupies all subsummary space.

One of widespread methods of assessment of prints of feet is the method Shtriter (fig. 3). On a plantogramma carry out a tangent to the most acting points of an internal contour of foot. From its middle recover a perpendicular av before crossing it with an outside contour of a print. Measure as a percentage a ratio of the painted-over part of a perpendicular be to all its length.

The received figures estimate as follows; from 0 to 40% — various degrees of hollow foot; from 40 to 50% — norm; from 50 to 100% — various degrees of flat-footedness.

At people excessively raised or subnutrition of a plantogramma are distorted and do not characterize a condition of the arch of foot.

Plantografiya should use in combination with other diagnostic methods: poll, survey, podometriya (see), a X-ray analysis, a podografiya (a biomechanical method of definition of time of a support for various departments of foot during the walking). On roentgenograms in a side projection at load of a leg and without it about a condition of the longitudinal arch judge by an inclination of a calcaneus to the plane of a support. The tilt angle of a calcaneus to the horizontal plane is normal 16 — 25 °. Its reduction is observed at various degrees of flat-footedness.

Bibliography: Brandis S.A. Some data to the characteristic of foot, Ortop, and travmat., No. 3-4, page 82, 1930; Godunov S. F. About flat-footedness at children, in the same place, No. 1, page 40, 1968; Godunov S. F., P e r N and N and N. P. and Potikhano-v and G. G. Instruction for definition of longitudinal flat-footedness, Prosthetics and prosthetic engineering, century 3, page 71, M., 1960; r and c and N about in A. I. and And z r and fi-le in V. A. O to diagnosis of flat-footedness at the military personnel, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 8, page 78, 1977; Zavyalova N. V. About the orthopedic analysis of the longitudinal arch of foot, Saturday. works in-that for usover-shenstvo. doctors of Lenin in Kazan, t. 4, page 355, Kazan, 1935; Marx V. O. Orthopedic diagnosis, page 479, Minsk, 1978: Shtriter V. To a question of measurement of flat-footedness, the Gigabyte. work, No. 12 of page 20, 1927.‘’

G. N. Kramarenko.