PIROGOVSKY CONGRESSES — the congresses of doctors of Russia which were taking place from 1885 to 1919 and combining doctors of all specialties. In total 12 regular congresses, 2 extraordinary and 2 extraordinary (tab.) took place.
The congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors which were taking place since 1867 at all their scientific value could not solve a problem of association of doctors of Russia for improvement of the organization of practical health care since doctors-theorists participated in their work preferential (anatomists, physiologists, pharmacologists). Congresses of territorial doctors were limited to borders of certain provinces or (preferential) counties (see. Public medicine ).
The problem of association of doctors of Russia of all specialties for joint development of many scientific and practical questions received the decision during the celebration of the 50 anniversary of profession of a physician N. I. Pirogova in the summer of 1881 in Moscow. At the initiative of N. B. Sklifosovsky, K. F. Slavyansky, A. Ya. Krassovsky, S. S. Korsakov, B. Etc. the society combining doctors of St. Petersburg and Moscow was decided to create V. Sutugin, A. A. Bobrov, A. N. Maklakov. Issued in two years after N. I. Pirogov's death, in 1883, this association was called Moscow and St. Petersburg about-vom the Russian doctors in N. I. Pirogov's memory. However the congress convened by it in 1885 which received Pirogovsky's name was All-Russian on the list of participants. The All-Russian character of congresses of it about-va remained also in the subsequent though officially the All-Russian P.' convocation by the village was allowed only in 1892. Same year it was issued also All-Russian about-in the Russian doctors in N. I memory. Pirogova, a cut undertook further functions on P.'s convocation by the village. In intervals between congresses the commissions allocated at congresses — constant and temporary in which practical development of the questions standing on congresses concentrated worked: on public medicine, sanitation and fight against epidemics, sanitary statistics, distribution of hygienic knowledge in the people and school hygiene, on medical sanitary matter in the cities, on fight against hunger, on tuberculosis, malaria, etc.
For participation in congresses delegation was not obligatory. Any doctor could be the participant of a congress. Partly therefore the list of participants of P. of page on all their extent was very heterogeneous. Along with representatives of official medical circles at P. of page there were (and at much bigger number) heads territorial and city medical - a dignity. organizations, and also private medical practitioners.
Political views and moods of participants of congresses were very motley: from the representatives of official academic circles «moderated» on views to adjusted, as a rule, it is oppositional to the imperial government of representatives of the territorial medical organizations. There were also very few social democrats (S. I. Mickiewicz, V. P. Rubella, 3. P. Solovyov, I. V. Rusakov, V. A. Obukh).
Owing to heterogeneity of political views of participants of P. of page extremely unstable was also their general political orientation. Nevertheless P. of page were a tribune of public opinion not only on medical or sanitary questions, but also on a number of social problems: about the death penalty, corporal punishments, the mode of jails, the higher education of women etc. At the same time first of all views and moods of liberals and a demo kratov-populists of different shades found expression, to-rye were close on the political views to the majority vra-whose-pirogovtsev.
At the I congress there were only 8 sections: internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, syphilology, obstetrics and gynecology, anatomy and physiology, hygiene and forensic medicine and household questions. In total 98 reports were heard. The first the speech of N. V. Sklifosovsky elected the Honorary Chairman on «About Achievements of Surgery under Influence against — a Putrefactive Method» was heard. This subject became as if the program of a congress. Reports in sections of surgery (N. A. Velyaminov, S. P. Co-lomnin), obstetrics and gynecology (V. V. Sutugin), internal medicine were devoted to it (A. V. Pel). Questions of public medicine were discussed in sections of syphilology, ophthalmology. In section of syphilology — a number of reports was devoted to a source of spread of syphilis and measures of fight against it (F. Shperk, G. M. Gertsenstein, 3. Ya. Yeltsin, O. W. Petersen). In sections of ophthalmology and household questions problems of development of medical aid to country people were discussed at eye diseases (K. N. Sulima, A. P. Skrebsky, T. Bogayevsky, etc.). In section of household questions reports on the organization of the surgical help in the village (A.S. Tauber, G. G. Nadezhdin) were also heard; about the organization by zemstvoes of drugstores; about importance of rendering medical assistance by female doctors in rural areas (M. S. Uvarov), about legal and household status of doctors.
At the II congress in the opening speech N. V. Sklifosovsky planned tasks and perspectives of development of public medicine in Russia and P.'s role of page in it. At this congress in 16 departments 159 reports were read. In addition to N. V. Sklifosovsky A. A. Ostroumov, V. K. Roth, D. N. Zernov, V. S. Bogoslovsky, N. F. Filatov, V. F. Snegirev, A. P. Gubarev, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov, S. S. Korsakov and a number of prominent provincial professors acted. From the II congress the department of public medicine at which meeting M. S. Uvarov, V. I. Dolzhenkov, E made a speech originates. M. Dementiev, etc.; a big speech on the subject «Value of Bacteriology for Hygiene» was delivered by F. F. Erisman.
At the III congress elected the Honorary Chairman F. F. Erisman marked out in the speech that «congresses of the Russian doctors have huge value not only for us, physicians, but for Russia in general and mainly because not only questions private, questions on various specialties of medical science, but also questions the general — questions of possible improvement medical sh sanitary matter in Russia are discussed at these congresses, about further development of our treasure which is present nothing similar in Western Europe — our public territorial medicine». At the III congress the program of systematic development of questions of public medicine and hygiene by congresses of territorial doctors, and also the program for collecting of data on a condition of territorial medicine and its gradual development for quarter of the century were reported prepared by the commission elected at the II congress (F. F. Erisman, E. A. Osi-pov, I. V. Popov, etc.). As a practical action the edition of the territorial and medical collection and the magazine devoted to public medicine was offered.
At the III congress for the first time there was a subsection of bacteriology which organizer prof. M. I. Afanasyev in the opening speech noted that the subsection appeared for the first time in lists not only at a congress of Russians, but also foreign doctors.
At the IV congress which was taking place several months later after R. Koch's report on tuberculine on the X International congress the problem of studying of tuberculosis and measures of fight against it was program. Discussion took place it in departments of internal diseases (Yu. T. Chudnov-sky, N. S. Kishkin, V. V. Chirkov), hygiene (V. E. Ignatyev, V. F. Nagorski) and surgeries (N. V. Sklifosovsky, P. A. Alexandrov, A. D. Pavlovsky, etc.).
At the V congress the attention was drawn by performances: M. I. Afanasyeva in section of children's diseases about the latest works on an etiology and clinical bacteriology of whooping cough, N. P. Vasilyev (pupil S. P. Botkin) in a subsection of infectious diseases about infectious jaundice, Neil Sokolov's report, one more pupil
S. P. Botkin, «About infectivity of croupous pneumonia», and also G. N. Minkh's speech «About leprosy» in section of internal diseases. Great interest was attracted by a meeting of section of forensic medicine, on Krom topical issues court were considered. - medical examination, a medical secret and ethics. The psychiatrist S. S. Korsakov directed meetings. Senator A. F. Koni, V. P doctors were speakers. Serbian, A. V. Pogozhey, I. V. Bertenson, etc. Questions of a medical secret and ethics were considered also in section of venereal and children's diseases. The great impression was left by work of section of pharmacology at which the tone was set by I. P.'s speech of Pavlov «O for incompleteness of the modern physiological analysis of the effect of drugs».
In section of public medicine the issue of promoting of hygienic knowledge in the people rising at the III congress was organizationally resolved.
As a result of unanimous vote the constant commission on distribution of hygienic knowledge in the people which chairmen consistently were P. Ya. Glushanovskaya - Yakov - Leva, K. M. Yazykov and A. V. Molkov was created.
The V congress elected constant executive body — board about-va — with its stay in Moscow.
Important achievement of activity of Pirogovsky about-va was «The magazine of society of the Russian doctors in N. I. Pirogov's memory» — the first magazine devoted to questions of public medicine. The main objective of the magazine — to promote association of the Russian doctors by collective work on the questions concerning as improvements of statement of medical and sanitary matter in Russia, and medical life. Within the first five years (till 1900) the magazine appeared under S. S. Korsakov's edition; after Korsakov's death I. V. Popov was elected the editor of the magazine. Eminent persons of Pirogovsky about-va E. A. Osipov, P. I. Kurkin and I. V. Popov published to the XII International medical congress in Moscow (1897) the book «Russian Territorial Medicine» (in French) for distribution to foreign participants among whom it made great success. In 1899 the book was published also in Russian.
At the VI congress the main reports were submitted by V.P. Obraztsov and M. I. Stukoven-kov's Kiev clinical schools. In section of public medicine in the first and only time reports on providing peasants with medical aid in not territorial provinces so-called took place. Southwest edge. In this regard the big response was received by two reports of N. I. Tezyakova: «About the organization of medical and food points for otkhozhy agricultural workers» and «About barrier of agricultural workers from damages by agricultural tools», and also M. S. Uvarov's report «About influence of seasonal works on sanitary position of Russia». Problems of fight against syphilis in the village were discussed at the VI congress in the section of skin and venereal diseases directed by the prof. V. M. Tarkovsky. D. N. Zhbankov, V. I. Pko-venko, S. S. Korsakov, M. Ya. Kapustin announced the draft of the petition for cancellation of corporal punishments for the country population of Russia.
At the VII (Kazan) congress problems of regional pathology of the Volga region and the Urals were program questions: craw, actinomycosis, stone disease, trachoma, ways of radical treatment of hernias. G. N. Gabrichevsky reported about precautionary measures of fight against diphtheria. K. K. Degio delivered a speech on the subject «Leprosy and Fight against It». The prof. V. M. Tarnovsky shared the observations in the report «About a curability of syphilis», and the prof. O. O. Mochutkovsky — «About a privivayemost of a sapropyra» (own experience of 1876). The program of section of public medicine on which reports on urban medicine in Nizhny Novgorod (N. I. Dolgopolov), reorganization of provincial territorial hospitals (N. I. Tezyakov), practical benefits of medico-statistical bureaus of provincial zemstvoes were discussed (M. M. Gran) was saturated.
The congress in Kazan matched the hunger which burst as a result of a crop failure of 1898 in the Volga region in this connection two extra program reports on this subject — D. N. Zhbankova and M. M. Grana were discussed. The congress unanimously accepted according to D. N. Zhbankov's proposal the petition before the government «about a research of the reasons of chronic starvation of the population and about their elimination».
To the VII congress work of the Commission on approval of methods of sanitary and statistical researches was finished. The nomenclatures of diseases and the reporting accepted about-vom by results of work of this commission allowed to bring uniformity in a dignity. statistics also provided a possibility of comparative study of the state of health of the population in different areas. The general conclusions of the commission were the basis for the nomenclature of diseases approved at the beginning of 1902. Medical council of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
At the beginning of 1900 according to the resolution of the VII congress the commission on studying of tuberculosis which developed a nrogragima of studying of this disease was created, made the draft of the charter of Society for fight against tuberculosis and in 1903 carried out work on convocation of a special meeting for exchange of opinions on practical implementation of actions for fight against tuberculosis. The commission equipped several expeditions, made 3 releases of «Works».
The VIII congress was extremely numerous — 2010 participants, including also veterinarians. Occupations were distributed between 25 sections united in 6 groups. Questions of factory and mining medicine were for the first time allocated in independent section. From program questions on other sections were the most interesting: a role of animals in spread of infectious diseases of the person; prevention of infectious diseases (vaccination, isolation, disinfection); technology of preparation to lay down. serums (all 3 — in section of bacteriology and parasitology); about physical methods of treatment of heart (in section of internal diseases); about an etiology and therapy of rickets (in section of children's diseases); use of radiography in surgery, pulmonary surgery (on the basis of the Russian data); anesthesia and hypnotism during pregnancy and childbirth; reasons of zhep-sky diseases and problem of prevention. At a congress the commission on studying of malaria in Russia was created, to-ruyu G. N. Gabrichesky headed. At the VIII congress A. P. Voskresensky read the report «About normal network of medical sites» which should be considered the first attempt of planning of health care. In the report the task of decentralization of medical assistance, its perhaps bigger approach to the population was set. At last, in the center of attention not only section of public medicine, but also all congress there were two reports of A. I. Shingarev: «To a question of local sanitary researches» and «The village of Novozhivotinnoye and of Mokhovatk in the sanitary relation», defined very critical character of the subsequent debate. Not without reason afterwards the Ministry of Internal Affairs noted that the regular congresses (Pirogovskiye) starting with VIII happening in 1902 in Moscow had no «business character», «evaded from the programs and dealt with issues, nothing in common with tasks Ob-va having». After the VIII congress police surveillance behind Pirogovsky's activity was strengthened about-va, and on the eve of convocation of the IX congress in St. Petersburg the organizing committee received «request» from the director of the department of police to exclude two reports from the agenda of a congress.
At the IX congress (1904) there were 1136 delegates; occupations were distributed between 27 departments. Program questions were: fight against malaria, a role of insects in spread of infectious diseases; modern ways of treatment of septic diseases in surgery; surgery of lungs; long-term results of different ways of radical operations of hernias; roentgenoscopy in surgery; antiseptic agents in surgery and an asepsis in the war.
Democratic moods in about-ve, characteristic of the eve of the first Russian revolution, found reflection in decisions of a congress: according to G. E. Rein's report «The organization of giving of the help at childbirth in country and urban population of Russia» the Russian factory legislation on health protection of workers was decided that it is necessary to extend to all territory of Russia territorial institutions with wide representation from all segments of the population, and also to develop during pregnancy, childbirth and a puerperal period. It was noted that the correct and reasonable fight against alcoholism demands full ensuring personal freedom, the word, the press and meetings as conditions, at which only and perhaps wide spread occurance among the population of data on harm of alcoholism and actual reasons of its development. Similar resolutions on the social orientation were adopted according to reports on fight against child mortality and on fight against tuberculosis. It was declared also that obligatory insurance of workers as the measure of fight against tuberculosis can make success only on condition of the general social reforms and with active participation of workers in the organization of this business.
In this regard it is necessary to remind that during the IX congress the doctor Bolshevik S. I. Mickiewicz reported to territorial doctors — participants of a congress the leaflet with the appeal of the St. Petersburg committee of Social Democratic Party about need of a combination of profession of a physician to mass political work. However during the Russian revolution of 1905 only the few doctors adjoined social democrats.
The IX congress reflected, thus, oppositional moods of the advanced Russian intelligentsia. At the end of 1904 as a result of the growing indignation of policy of the tsarism which captured even territorial tops, oppositional character was gained by activity of government of Pirogovsky about-va, a cut in the appeal to bureau of a meeting of territorial representatives emphasized «neotsrochny need of radical reform of the existing political system of Russia».
Social character of decisions of the IX congress was soon shown by V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich in article published in the Proletary newspaper, in which he wrote that congresses of 1904 and 1905 were a platform for promotion of the moderate releases program. They distracted the fluctuating forces of the interclass intellectuals from «capture by their social democratic promotion». Concerning the resolutions adopted by a congress including allegedly the RSDRP, V. D. program at least Bonch-Bruyevich wrote: «... in all resolutions there is no hint on the most radical and most important requirement from all RSDRP program at least even — the requirement of the democratic republic. And this default not an accidental slip, but a deliberate zatushevaniye of the question raised by social democrats».
Work of an extraordinary congress on fight against cholera (1905) in a bigger degree reflected a revolutionary situation in Russia. A noticeable role at this congress was played by group of doctors - pain - shevikov. In the resolution delegates of a congress declared that any cultural peaceful work is impossible at the existing system and that doctors need to become organized with workers masses for carrying out fight hand in hand against an autocratic and bureaucratic system for its full elimination and for convocation of the Constituent assembly. In the field of health protection the congress demanded establishment for workers of the 8-hour working day, the state insurance on a case of a disease, an old age and disability, free medical aid, the wide factory legislation. In it need to expand the union, doctors was noted, having included in it all medical staff and according to it having renamed it into «The All-Russian union of medical personnel». Acceptance by a congress of so radical political resolution was a big victory of doctors-bolynevikov.
Pirogovtsa in overwhelming weight followed party of cadets. Incident at the X Pirogovsky congress in April, 1907 convincingly testifies to it D. N. Zhbankov in the report on fight against hunger proposed to file a petition in the State Duma. The few doctors Bolsheviks who acted in a debate unanimously rejected D. N. Zhbankov's proposal. S. I. Mickiewicz motivated the requirement of basic change of the text of the address with the fact that in the Duma the chernoyeoten-but-cadet majority was formed. In reply * the storm of protests rose by it, and Mickiewicz was not let speak.
At the X congress in 12 scientific sections over 90 were heard * reports, including D. K. Zabolotny's report on «About Progress in Studying of Syphilis». The section of bacteriology provided informative reports at a ceremonial meeting of memory of G. N. Gabrichevsky, and surgical section — at a meeting of memory of N. V. Sklifosovsky. Summing up the results of the X congress, the prof. S. S. Salazkin noted, laying aside a scientific part of a congress and passing to its medical and public part that we have few subject resolutions, and mainly — wishes of the general character.
With each subsequent congress this lack of energy, social determination of the medical public of Russia becomes more and more noticeable. After defeat of the first Russian revolution in Russia there came the period of reaction.
The XI congress showed swayings, disorder and disintegration, despondency and cowardice. A. I. Shingarev's report — one of the most visible leaders of constitutional democratic party about N. I. Pirogov was sustained in the spirit of the collection «Milestones» which appeared in 1909 which V. I. Lenin called «the encyclopedia of a liberal desertion». Chairman of a congress of F. A. Rein in concluding remarks had to recognize: «All of us, of course, feel and we understand that the XI congress took place without usual revival and raising of mood. At the same time, however, it should be noted also that in numerous sections went quiet, without sharp disagreements, and efficiently amicable creative work». The «business mood» established since then on P. page and meetings came down to a tendency to suppress political working conditions and to speak only about needs of everyday life.
Discussion at a congress of questions of medical education was really useful. Active part was taken in it by G. E. Rein and V. I. Razumovsky. Training of doctors underwent fair criticism, the recommendations submitted on elimination of shortcomings of teaching natural-science, public and medical and clinical disciplines were accepted.
Therefore the blank declaration sounded in the resolution of the XI congress of the word about need of «strictly democratic reforms in the organization of legislative institutions and self-government institutions». A year later after the Lensk events which showed force of the working class stirred to action, piro-govets still could not understand by what way and what forces their good wishes will be carried out.
At the XII congress in a debate on the issue of medical service of workers there was a sharp discrepancy of opinions. The point of view of the majority about need to transfer medical aid by the worker from sick-lists kyss to a zemstvo was not directly expressed in the resolution of a congress. However performances in a debate clearly were expressed no confidence to organizational opportunities on places, to amateur performance of working class and, in essence, argued this point of view. Unanimously at the XII congress only the resolution rejecting developed by the interdepartmental commission under the direction of G. E was adopted. Rhine offer on the organization of Head department of the state health care. Beginning with the II congress pirogovets remained are faithful to the principle — not to trust attempts of intervention of the imperial government to medical aid to the population. At the XII congress the question of abortion was topical. The inaccuracy and harm of a number of performances in a debate on this question were opened by V. I. Lenin. In the field of the theory and practice of fight against epidemics very valuable and useful business of Pirogovsky about-va was convocation in 1911 and 1912 of two meetings on epidemiology and bacteriology.
The world war which broke out in 1914 caused the revelry of chauvinism which captured also circles of the democratic (narodnichesky) intellectuals, and «party of the Russian liberal bourgeoisie — cadets — entirely and unconditionally supported the imperial government» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 26, page 329). Pirogovskoye about-in, captured by the same «patriotic» waste, adjoined the camp of supporters of absolute war. Under this slogan there took place two congresses on military and sanitary questions.
At an extraordinary congress of Pirogovsky about-va in April, 1916 discussion of tasks of the medical organization at the front and in the back was conducted with positions of continuation of war, and some being opposite of a congress to the government, requirements of reorganization of the power followed from the same interests of providing a victory at the front.
The next, extraordinary, Pirogovsky congress took place after the February revolution — in April, 1917. And though on the relation to war the congress adopted the resolution in which it welcomed the appeal of the Petrograd Council of working and soldier's deputies to people of the world to appeal on fight for peace, the congress at the same time approved the Declaration of Provisional government: «While war to both young Russian freedom and our allies lasts Wilhelm's armies threaten, the Pirogovsky congress calls citizens of Russia for mobilization of all forces and their maximum tension for protection of the country and gains of revolution». Thus, the congress supported support of Provisional government, and recommended to postpone permission of social problems (about the earth, about the 8-hour working day, about health care) until the Constituent assembly.
Pirogovsky's government about-va met great October socialist revolution by the address to doctors with an appeal to sabotage, it called Bolsheviks aggressors. Did not sign only his three board members — I. V. Rusakov, 3. P. Solovyov and A. N. Sysinonim
Spustya two days after closing of the Pirogovsky meeting took place the all-Moscow meeting of the medics standing on a platform of the Soviet power. It declared that pirogovsky congresses lost the former value, especially since the majority of pirogovets left ranks of defenders of national business and was thrown to the camp of enemies of the proletariat.
The doctor Bolshevik I. V. Rusakov who left together with 3. By P. Solovyov from Pirogovsky's government about-va with a resolute protest against its anti-Soviet position, wrote in the spring of 1918, addressing the few then medical workers standing «on a platform of the Soviet power»: «Remained us faithful to the working population a little. The heavy burden fell down our shoulders. Rally, not for long we should bear its one. Ranks of opponents already trembled. One by one they pass to us. Some more efforts, and all mass of the intelligent proletariat will be on our party. If they came to be from us on that side of a barricade, then only due to a misunderstanding — the truth on deep historical, but nevertheless to misunderstanding».
In July, 1918 the National commissariat of health care of RSFSR led by N. A. Semashko was created.
Despite a negative position of the guide of Pirogovsky about-va, the best representatives of pirogovets one by one began to pass into ranks of builders of the Soviet medicine (L. A. Tarasevich, I. V. Popov, P. N. Diatroptov, P. I. Kurkin, N. I. Tezyakov and many others).
Heads of the Soviet medicine managed to accelerate this process of transition in return. They it is correct, differentially approached the doctors leaving a hostile camp, helping fluctuating, creating for them the atmosphere of friendly cooperation.
In the fall of 1918. A. V. Molkov transferred Narkomzdrava all property of the former Pirogovsky commission on distribution a gigabyte. knowledge on the basis of which the Museum of social hygiene (since 1922 began to be created. Institute of social hygiene, the director — A. V. Molkov).
Epidemic of a sapropyra which flashed in the country in November, 1918, threat of spread of smallpox, malaria, «Spaniard» forced many members of Pirogovsky about-va to take active part in fight against epidemics.
All positive heritage of Pirogovsky about-va and his congresses gained continuation and worthy development in system of the Soviet health care, in the conditions of higher social order, one of the main tasks of which is strengthening of health of the people.
Table. YEARS AND VENUES of PIROGOVSKY CONGRESSES
Bibliography: N. I. Pirogov and his heritage pirogovsky congresses, under the editorship of M. M. Gran, 3. G. Frenkel and A. I. Shingarev, SPb., 1911; The Pirogovsky congress on fight against cholera, century 1 — 2, M., 1905; With t r and sh at I. D N. The Russian public medicine during the period between two revolutions 1907 — 1917, M., 1964; Sh and d l about in with to and y K. I. Svod of resolutions and works of the I—VI All-Russian congresses of doctors, M., 1899.
I. D. Strashun.